The CTRC is a graduated National Science Foundation Industry/University Cooperative Research Center, and addresses pre-competitive, longer-term research and development issues in the area of high-performance heat removal from compact spaces. The agenda for the Center is set on a yearly basis with research projects identified through a ranking by all members. Regular updates on the work are made available to members through a restricted-access web page. The Center meets twice a year to review progress and choose upcoming projects.

One of the distinctive features of CTRC is that the research agenda is set by the members—each member has a strong input in the research directions adopted. Since members are from diverse industries, beneficial cross-industry interactions are common. A product-oriented focus is maintained. Equipment manufacturers are included amongst the participants, and this facilitates a translation of research ideas and prototypes into products.

Link to the Cooling Technologies Research Center Web site

The following collection of documents represents research from the Cooling Technologies Research Center in addition to related work published by its faculty and students.

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Manuscripts from 2021

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The Role of Dynamic Wetting Behavior during Bubble Growth and Departure from a Solid Surface, Taylor P. Allred, Justin A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

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Vapor stem bubbles dominate heat transfer enhancement in extremely confined boiling, A. A. Alsaati, D. M. Warsinger, J. A. Weibel, and A. M. Marconnet

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Cascaded multi-core vapor chambers for intra-package spreading of high power, heterogeneous heat loads,, S. Bandyopadhyay, A. M. Marconnet, and Justin Weibel

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Effective Anisotropic Properties-Based Representation of Vapor Chambers, K. Baraya, J. A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

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Machine-Learning Assisted Optimization Strategies for Phase Change Materials Embedded within Electronic Packages, M. Bhatasana and A. M. Marconnet

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Thermal and mechanical characterization of high-performance polymer fabrics for applications in wearable devices, A. A. Candadai, E. J. Nadler, J. S. Burke, J. A. Weibel, and A. M. Marconnet

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Asymmetric Solidification During Droplet Freezing in the Presence of a Neighboring Droplet, J. E. Castillo, Y. Huang, Z. Pan, and J. A. Weibel

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Quantifying the pathways of latent heat dissipation during droplet freezing on cooled substrates, J. E. Castillo, Y. Huang, Z. Pan, and J. A. Weibel

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Impact of pressure drop oscillations on surface temperature and critical heat flux during flow boiling in a microchannel, M.D. Clark, J.A. Weibel, and S.V. Garimella

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Transient flow boiling and maldistribution characteristics in heated parallel channels induced by flow regime oscillations, T.A. Kingston, B.D. Olson, J.A. Weibel, and S.V. Garimella

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Adhesive bonding of copper prepared by laser-interference near the interference structuring limits, H. Liu, J.A. Weibel, P Geoghegan, A.S. Sabu, and E.A. Groll

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Ultra-White BaSO4 Paint and Film with Remarkable Radiative Cooling Performance, X. Li, J. Peoples, P. Y. Yao, and X. Ruan

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The effect of uneven heating on the flow distribution between parallel microchannels undergoing boiling, A. Miglani, A. Soto, J.A. Weibel, and S.V. Garimella

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Measurement of flow maldistribution induced by the Ledinegg instability during boiling in thermally isolated parallel microchannels, A. Miglani, J. A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

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An experimental investigation of the effect of thermal coupling between parallel microchannels undergoing boiling on the Ledinegg instability-induced flow maldistribution, A. Miglani, J. A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

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Topology Optimization of Microchannel Heat Sinks using a Homogenization Approach, S. Ozguc, L. Pan, and J. A. Weibel

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Optimization of permeable membrane microchannel heat sinks for additive manufacturing, S. Ozguc, L. Pan, and J.A. Weibel

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Comparative analysis of battery electric vehicle thermal management systems under long-range drive cycles, T.J. Shelly, J.A. Weibel, D. Ziviani, and E.A. Groll

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Investigation of boiling behaviors in vapor chambers in response to transient heat input profiles, S. Sudhakar, S.N. Joshi, and J.A. Weibel

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A semi-empirical model for thermal resistance and dryout during boiling in thin porous evaporators fed by capillary action, S. Sudhakar, J.A. Weibel, and S.V. Garimella

Manuscripts from 2020

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Heat Pipe Dryout and Temperature Hysteresis in Response to Transient Heat Pulses Exceeding the Capillary Limit, K. Baraya, J. A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

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Thermal Conductivity of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene: From Fibers to Fabrics, A. A. Candadai, J. A. Weibel, and A. M. Marconnet

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Non-Linear Non-Iterative Transient Inverse Conjugate Heat Transfer Method Applied to Microelectronics, David Gonzalez Cuadrado, Amy Marconnet, and Guillermo Paniagua

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Demonstration of a Compliant Micro-Spring Array as a Thermal Interface Material for Pluggable Optoelectronic Transceiver Modules, J. Cui, L. Pan, and J. A. Weibel

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Two-phase Flow Morphology and Local Wall Temperatures in High-Aspect-Ratio Manifold Microchannels, K. P. Drummond, J. A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

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Role of Nanoscale Roughness in the Heat Transfer Characteristics of Thin Film Evaporation, H. Hu, J. A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

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The Effect of Channel Diameter on Flow Freezing in Microchannel, A. Jain, A. Miglani, J. A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

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Time-Resolved Characterization of Microchannel Flow Boiling During Transient Heating: Part 1 – Dynamic Response to a Single Heat Flux Pulse, T. A. Kingston, J. A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

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Time-Resolved Characterization of Microchannel Flow Boiling During Transient Heating: Part 2 – Dynamic Response to Time-Periodic Heat Flux Pulses, T. A. Kingston, J. A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

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Full Daytime Sub-Ambient Radiative Cooling in Commercial-like Paints with High Figure of Merit, X. Li, J. Peoples, Z. Huang, Z. Zhao, J. Qui, and X. Ruan

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Transport Mechanisms during Water Droplet Evaporation on Heated Substrates, Z. Pan, J. A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

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On the Transient Thermal Response of Thin Vapor Chamber Heat Spreaders: Optimized Design and Fluid Selection, G. Patankar, J. A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

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Droplets on Soft Surfaces Exhibit a Reluctance to Coalesce due to an Intervening Wetting Ridge, R. Roy, R. L. Seiler, J. A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

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The Role of Vapor Venting and Liquid Feeding on the Dryout Limit of Two-Layer Evaporator Wicks, S. Sukhakar, J. A. Weibel, F. Zhou, E. M. Dede, and S V. Garimella

Manuscripts from 2019

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The Petal Effect of Parahydrophobic Surfaces offers Low Receding Contact Angles that Promote Effective Boiling, T. P. Allred, J. A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

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Design, fabrication, and characterization of a compact hierarchical manifold microchannel heat sink array for two-phase cooling, D. Back, K. P. Drummond, M. D. Sinanis, J. A. Weibel, S V. Garimella, D. Peroulis, and D. B. Janes

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Simultaneous Wick and Fluid Selection for the Design of Minimized-Thermal-Resistance Vapor Chambers under Different Operating Conditions, K. Baraya, J. A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

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Predicting the Growth of Many Droplets During Vapor-Diffusion-Driven Dropwise Condensation Experiments Using the Point Sink Superposition Method, J. Castillo and J. A. Weibel

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The wetting state of water on a rose petal, M. Chakraborty, J. A. Weibel, J. A. Schaber, and S V. Garimella

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Evaporation-Driven Micromixing in Sessile Droplets for Miniaturized Absorbance-Based Colorimetry, A. Chandramohan, M. Chakraborty, J. A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

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Identification of Nucleate Boiling as the Dominant Heat Transfer Mechanism during Confined Two-Phase Jet Impingement, M. D. Clark, J. A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

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A Permeable-Membrane Microchannel Heat Sink Made by Additive Manufacturing, I. L. Collins, J. A. Weibel, L. Pan, and S V. Garimella

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Evaluation of additively manufactured microchannel heat sinks, I. L. Collins, J. A. Weibel, L. Pan, and S V. Garimella

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A Compliant Microstructured Thermal Interface Material for Dry and Pluggable Interfaces, J. Cui, J. Wang, J. A. Weibel, and L. Pan

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A Coupled Wicking and Evaporation Model for Prediction of Pool Boiling Critical Heat Flux on Structured Surfaces, H. Hu, J. A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

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Ice Formation Modes during Flow Freezing in a Small Cylindrical Channel, A. Jain, A. Miglani, Y Huang, J. A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

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Ledinegg Instability-Induced Temperature Excursion between Thermally Isolated, Heated Parallel Microchannels, T. A. Kingston, J. A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

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Visualizing Near-Wall Two-Phase Flow Morphology During Confined and Submerged Jet Impingement Boiling to the Point of Critical Heat Flux, C. Mira Hernandez, J. A. Weibel, and S. V. Garimella

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Three-Dimensional Liquid-Vapor Interface Reconstruction from High-Speed Stereo Images during Pool Boiling, C. Mira-Hernandez, J. A. Weibel, P. P. Vlachos, and S V. Garimella

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Supplemental - Three-Dimensional Liquid-Vapor Interface Reconstruction from High-Speed Stereo Images during Pool Boiling, C. Mira-Hernandez, J. A. Weibel, P. P. Vlachos, and S. V. Garimella

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On the transient thermal response of thin vapor chamber heat spreaders: governing mechanisms and performance relative to metal spreaders, G. Patankar, J. A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

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Experimental Investigation of Boiling Regimes in a Capillary-Fed Two-Layer Evaporator Wick, S. Sudhakar, J A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

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Design of an area-scalable two-layer evaporator wick for high-heat-flux vapor chambers, S. Sudhakar, J. A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

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Area-scalable high-heat-flux dissipation at low thermal resistance using a capillary-fed two-layer evaporator wick, S. Sudhakar, J. A. Weibel, F. Zhou, E. M. Dede, and S V. Garimella

Manuscripts from 2018

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Enabling Highly Effective Boiling from Superhydrophobic Surfaces, T. Allred, J. A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

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A Point Sink Superposition Method for Predicting Droplet Interaction Effects During Vapor-Diffusion-Driven Dropwise Condensation in Humid Air, J. E. Castillo and J. A. Weibel

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Tears of an Evaporating Meniscus on a Silicon Substrate, M. Chakraborty, J. A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

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Metallized Compliant Three-Dimensional Microstructures for Dry Contact Thermal Conductance Enhancement, J. Cui, J. Wang, Y. Zhong, L. Pan, and J. A. Weibel

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A Hierarchical Manifold Microchannel Heat Sink Array for High-Heat-Flux Two-Phase Cooling of Electronics, K. P. Drummond, D. Back, M. D. Sinanis, D. B. Janes, D. Peroulis, J. A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

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Characterization of Hierarchical Manifold Microchannel Heat Sink Arrays under Simultaneous Background and Hotspot Heating Conditions, K. P. Drummond, D. Back, M. D. Sinanis, D. B. Janes, D. Peroulis, J. A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

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Expanding the Global Reach of the Twenty-First-Century Research University, S V. Garimella

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High‐Frequency Thermal‐Fluidic Characterization of Dynamic Microchannel Flow Boiling Instabilities: Part 1 ‐ Rapid‐Bubble‐Growth Instability at the Onset of Boiling, T. A. Kingston, J. A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

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High‐Frequency Thermal‐Fluidic Characterization of Dynamic Microchannel Flow Boiling Instabilities: Part 2 ‐ Impact of Operating Conditions on Instability Type and Severity, T. A. Kingston, J. A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

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Development and Validation of a Semi-Empirical Model for Two-Phase Heat Transfer from Arrays of Impinging Jets, C. Mira-Hernández, M. D. Clark, J. A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

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A Validated Time-Stepping Analytical Model for 3D Transient Vapor Chamber Transport, G. Patankar, J. A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

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Calibration and Uncertainty Analysis of a Fixed-Bed Adsorption Model for CO2 Separation, K. N. Son, J. A. Weibel, J. C. Knox, and S V. Garimella

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The Effect of Lateral Thermal Coupling Between Parallel Microchannels on Two‐Phase Flow Distribution, T. Van Oevelen, J. A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

Manuscripts from 2017

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Spatiotemporal Infrared Measurement of Interface Temperatures During Water Droplet Evaporation on a Nonwetting Substrate, A. Chandramohan, J. A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

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Electronics Thermal Management in Information and Communications Technologies: Challenges and Future Directions, S. V. Garimella, T. Persoons, J. A. Weibel, and V. Gektin

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Axisymmetric Wall Jet Development in Confined Jet Impingement, T. Guo, M. Rau, P. Vlachos, and S V. Garimella

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An Experimental Method for Controlled Generation and Characterization of Microchannel Slug Flow Boiling, T A. Kingston, J A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

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Numerical Simulation of Evaporating Two-Phase Flow in a High-Aspect-Ratio Microchannel with Bends, Z. Pan, J A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

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Working-Fluid Selection for Minimized Thermal Resistance in Ultra-Thin Vapor Chambers, G. Patankar, J A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

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Characterization of Liquid Film Thickness in Slug-Regime Microchannel Flows, R. S. Patel, J. A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

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Mechanistic Modeling of the Liquid Film Shape and Heat Transfer Coefficient in Annular-Regime Microchannel Flow Boiling, R. S. Patel, J. W. Weibel, and S. V. Garimella

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Quantitative Evaluation of the Dependence of Pool Boiling Heat Transfer Enhancement on Sintered Particle Coating Characteristics, S. Sarangi, J A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

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Design of Multifunctional Lattice‐Frame Materials for Compact Heat Exchangers, K. N. Son, J. A. Weibel, V. Kumaresan, and S. V. Garimella

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Design of Electrode Arrays for 3D Capacitance Tomography in Planar Domains, S Taylor

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Predicting Two-Phase Flow Distribution and Stability in Systems with Many Parallel Heated Channels, T Van Oevelen, J A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

Manuscripts from 2016

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Coalescence-Induced Jumping of Multiple Condensate Droplets on Hierarchical Superhydrophobic Surfaces, X Chen, R. S. Patel, J. A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

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Short and Long-Term Sensitivity of Lab-Scale Thermocline Based Thermal Storage to Flow Disturbances, S. Hatte, C. Mira-Hernandez, S. Advaith, A. Tinaikara, U. K. Chetia, D. V. Manu, K. Chattopadhyay, J. A. Weibel, S V. Garimella, V. Srinivasan, and S. Basu

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Prediction of Air-Side Particulate Fouling of HVAC&R Heat Exchangers, H. Inamdar, E. A. Groll, J. A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

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Compressed-Liquid Energy Storage with an Adsorption-based Vapor Accumulator for Solar-Driven Vapor Compression Systems in Residential Cooling, C. Mira-Hernandez, J. A. Weibel, E. A. Groll, and S V. Garimella

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A Saturated-Interface-Volume Phase Change Model for Simulating Flow Boiling, Z. Pan, Justin Weibel, and S V. Garimella

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Patterning the Condenser-Side Wick in Ultra-Thin Vapor Chamber Heat Spreaders to Improve Skin Temperature Uniformity of Mobile Devices, G Patakar, Justin Weibel, and S V. Garimella

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A Method for Thermal Performance Characterization of Ultra-Thin Vapor Chambers Cooled by Natural Convection, G. Patankar, S. Mancin, J. A. Weibel, M. A. McDonald, and S V. Garimella

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Stereo-PIV Measurements of Vapor-Induced Flow Modifications in Confined Jet Impingement Boiling, M. J. Rau, T. Guo, P. P. Vlachos, and S V. Garimella

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A Tomographic-PIV Investigation of Vapor-Induced Flow Structures in Confined Jet Impingement Boiling, M. J. Rau, P. P. Vlachos, and S V. Garimella

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Capacitive Sensing of Local Bond Layer Thickness and Coverage in Thermal Interface Materials, S. H. Taylor and S V. Garimella

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Thermal and Mechanical Modeling of Metal Foams for Thermal Interface Applications, N. Trifale, E. Nauman, and K Yazawa