The CTRC is a National Science Foundation Industry/University Cooperative Research Center, and addresses pre-competitive, longer-term research and development issues in the area of high-performance heat removal from compact spaces. The agenda for the Center is set on a yearly basis with research projects identified through a ranking by all members. Regular updates on the work are made available to members through a restricted-access web page. The Center meets twice a year to review progress and choose upcoming projects.

One of the distinctive features of CTRC is that the research agenda is set by the members—each member has a strong input in the research directions adopted. Since members are from diverse industries, beneficial cross-industry interactions are common. A product-oriented focus is maintained. Equipment manufacturers are included amongst the participants, and this facilitates a translation of research ideas and prototypes into products.

Link to the Cooling Technologies Research Center Web site

The following collection of documents represents research from the Cooling Technologies Research Center and related work by Dr. Suresh Garimella and his students.

#### Manuscripts from 2014

System-Level Simulation of a Solar Power Tower Plant with Thermocline Thermal Energy Storage, S. Flueckiger, B. D. Iverson, Suresh V. Garimella, and J. Pacheco

Latent-Heat Augmentation of Thermocline Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power – A System-Level Assessment, S. M. Flueckiger and S V. Garimella

Economic Optimization of a Concentrating Solar Power Plant with Molten-salt Thermocline Storage, S. M. Flueckiger, B. D. Iverson, and S V. Garimella

Local Measurement of Flow Boiling Heat Transfer in an Array of Non-Uniformly Heated Microchannels, S. N. Ritchey, J. A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

Manifold Microchannel Heat Sink Design Using Optimization Under Uncertainty, S Sarangi, K. K. Bodla, Suresh V. Garimella, and J. Y. Murthy

#### Manuscripts from 2013

Direct Simulation of Thermal Transport through Sintered Wick Microstructures, K. K. Bodla, J. Y. Murthy, and S V. Garimella

Evaporation Analysis of Sintered Wick Microstructures, K. K. Bodla, J. Y. Murthy, and S V. Garimella

Optimization Under Uncertainty Applied to Heat Sink Design, K. K. Bodla, J. Y. Murthy, and S V. Garimella

Advances in Fluid and Thermal Transport Property Analysis and Design of Sintered Porous Wick Microstructures, K. K. Bodla, J. A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

Advances in Fluid and Thermal Transport Property Analysis and Design of Sintered Porous Wick Microstructures, K. K. Bodla, J. A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

Linear Compressors for Electronics Cooling: Energy Recovery and the Useful Benefits, C. R. Bradshaw, E. A. Groll, and Suresh V. Garimella

A Study of Critical Heat Flux during Flow Boiling in Microchannel Heat Sinks, T. Chen and S V. Garimella

Evaporative Deposition on Superhydrophobic Surfaces, M. Dicuangco, S. Dash, and S V. Garimella

Nanotextured Superhydrophobic Electrodes Enable Detection of Attomolar-Scale DNA Concentration within a Droplet by Non-Faradaic Impedance Spectroscopy, A. Ebrahimi, P. Dak, E. Salm, S. Dash, Suresh V. Garimella, R. Bashir, and M. Alam

Design of Molten-Salt Thermocline Tanks for Solar Thermal Energy Storage, S. M. Flueckiger, Z. Yang, and S V. Garimella

Technological Drivers in Data Centers and Telecom Systems: Multiscale Thermal, Electrical, and Energy Management, S V. Garimella, T. Persoons, J. Weibel, and L.-T. Yeh

Metal Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes for Enhanced Sintered Powder Wicks, A. S. Kousalya, J. A. Weibel, S V. Garimella, and T. S. Fisher

Nucleate Boiling from Smooth and Rough Surfaces--Part 1: Fabrication and Characterization of an Optically Transparent Heater-Sensor Substrate with Controlled Surface Roughness, J. P. McHale and S V. Garimella

Nucleate Boiling from Smooth and Rough Surfaces--Part 2: Analysis of Surface Roughness Effects on Nucleate Boiling, J. P. McHale and S V. Garimella

Evaporative Heat Transfer from an Electrowetted Liquid Ribbon on a Heated Substrate, Chris P. Migliaccio and S V. Garimella

Local Two-Phase Heat Transfer from Arrays of Submerged and Confined Impinging Jets, M. Rau and Suresh V. Garimella

Pool Boiling Heat Transfer from Deformable Particulate Beds, J. A. Weibel, S. Sarangi, and S V. Garimella

Thermodynamic Comparison of Organic Rankine Cycles Employing Liquid-Flooded Expansion or a Solution Circuit, B. J. Woodland, A. Krishna, E. A. Groll, J. E. Braun, W. T. Horton, and S V. Garimella

Cyclic Operation of Molten-Salt Thermal Energy Storage in Thermoclines for Solar Power Plants, Z. Yang and S V. Garimella

#### Manuscripts from 2012

Droplet Retention on an Incline, S. R. Annapragada, J. Y. Murthy, and S V. Garimella

Prediction of Droplet Dynamics on an Incline, S. R. Annapragada, J. Y. Murthy, and S V. Garimella

Determination of Electrical Contact Resistivity in Thermoelectric Modules (TEMS) from Module-Level Measurements, S. R. Annapragada, T. Salamon, P. Kolodner, M. Hodes, and S V. Garimella

Topological Design of Channels for Squeeze Flow Optimization of Thermal Interface Materials, Nikhil Bajaj, Ganesh Subbarayan, and S V. Garimella

The Importance of Turbulence during Condensation in a Horizontal Circular Minichannel, E. da Riva, Davide Del Col, S V. Garimella, and Alberto Cavallini

Frequency-dependent transient response of an oscillating electrically actuated droplet, S. Dash, N. Kumari, and S V. Garimella

Numerical Investigation of an Evaporating Meniscus in a Channel, H. K. Dhavaleswarapu, J. Y. Murthy, and S V. Garimella

Thermodynamic and Kinetic Investigation of a Chemical Reaction-Based Miniature Heat Pump, Scott M. Flueckiger, Fabien Volle, S V. Garimella, and Rajiv K. Mongia

Second-Law Analysis of Molten-Salt Thermal Energy Storage in Thermoclines, S. Flueckiger and S V. Garimella

Thermal Management Challenges in Telecommunication Systems and Data Centers, S V. Garimella, L.-T. Yeh, and T. Persoons

Multi-objective Optimization of Sustainable Single-Effect Water/Lithium Bromide Absorption Cycle, B. H. Gebreslassie, E. A. Groll, and S V. Garimella

Flow Regime-Based Modeling of Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop in Microchannel Flow Boiling, T. Harirchian and S. V. Garimella

Alternative Heat Rejection Methods for Power Plants, R. A. Leffler, C. R. Bradshaw, E. A. Groll, and S V. Garimella

Dissipative Forces in the eElectrowetted Cassie-Wenzel Transition on Hydrophobic Rough Surfaces, C. P. Migliaccio and S V. Garimella

Electrical impedance-based void fraction measurement and flow regime identification in microchannel flows under adiabatic conditions, Sidharth Paranjape, Susan N. Ritchey, and S V. Garimella

Modeling and Design Optimization of Ultra-Thin Vapor Chambers for High Heat Flux Applications, R. Ranjan, J. Y. Murthy, S V. Garimella, D. H. Altman, and M. T. North

Wicking and Thermal Characteristics of Micropillared Structures for Use in Passive Heat Spreaders, R. Ranjan, A. Patel, S V. Garimella, and J. Murthy

Visualization of Vapor Formation Regimes during Capillary-Fed Boiling, J. A. Weibel and S V. Garimella

Carbon Nanotube Coatings for Enhanced Capillary-Fed Boiling from Porous Microstructures, J. A. Weibel, S. S. Kim, T. S. Fisher, and S V. Garimella

#### Manuscripts from 2011

A comprehensive model of a miniature-scale linear compressor for electronics cooling, Craig R. Bradshaw, Eckhard A. Groll, and S V. Garimella

Local Heat Transfer Distribution and Effect of Instabilities During Flow Boiling in a Silicon Microchannel Heat Sink, Tailian Chen and S V. Garimella

Characterization of Ultrahydrophobic Hierarchical Surfaces Fabricated Using Single-Step Fabrication Methodology, S. Dash, N. Kumari, and S V. Garimella

An Integrated Thermal and Mechanical Investigation of Molten-Salt Thermocline Energy Storage, S. Flueckiger, Z. Yang, and S V. Garimella

Characterization of the Heat Transfer Accompanying Electrowetting-Induced Droplet Motion, Niru Kumari and S V. Garimella

Pool Boiling Performance Comparison of Smooth and Sintered Copper Surfaces with and without Carbon Nanotubes, John P. McHale, S V. Garimella, Timothy S. Fisher, and Glen A. Powell

Temperature measurements near the contact line of an evaporating meniscus V-groove, Christopher P. Migliaccio, Hemanth K. Dhavaleswarapu, and S V. Garimella

Evaporative Heat and Mass Transfer from the Free Surface of a Liquid Wicked into a Bed of Spheres, Christopher P. Migliaccio and S V. Garimella

Assessment of Nanostructured Capillary Wicks for Passive, Two-Phase Heat Transport, R. Ranjan, S V. Garimella, J. Y. Murthy, and K. Yazawa

Numerical Investigation of Heat and Mass Transfer from an Evaporating Meniscus in a Heated Open Groove, H Wang, Z. Pan, and S V. Garimella

Design of Integrated Nanostructured Wicks for High-Performance Vapor Chambers, Justin A. Weibel, S V. Garimella, Jayathi Y. Murthy, and David H. Altman

#### Manuscripts from 2010

Electrical Actuation-Induced Droplet Transport on Smooth and Superhydrophobic Surfaces, V. Bahadur and S V. Garimella

Microtomography-Based Simulation of Transport Through Open-Cell Metal Foams, Karthik K. Bodla, Jayathi Y. Murthy, and S V. Garimella

Resistance network-based thermal conductivity model for metal foams, Karthik K. Bodla, Jayathi Y. Murthy, and S V. Garimella

Measurement of the Temperature Non-uniformity in a Microchannel Heat Sink Using Microscale Laser-Induced Fluorescence, P. Chamarthy, S. T. Wereley, and S V. Garimella

Simulation of Condensation in a Circular Minichannel: Application of VOF Method and Turbulence Model, E. Da Riva, E. Del Col, A. Cavallini, and Suresh V. Garimella

A comprehensive flow regime map for microchannel flow boiling with quantitative transition criteria, Tannaz Harirchian and S V. Garimella

Thermal Analog to AFM Force-Displacement Measurements for Nanoscale Interfacial Contact Resistance, B. D. Iverson, J. E. Blendell, and S V. Garimella

Pressure and Flow Rate Performance of Piezoelectric Fans, Mark Kimber, Kazuhiko Suzuki, Nobutaka Kitsunai, Kenichi Seki, and S V. Garimella

Analysis of Evaporating Mist Flow for Enhanced Convective Heat Transfer, N. Kumari, V. Bahadur, M. Hodes, T. Salamon, P. Kolodner, A. Lyons, and S V. Garimella

Bubble Nucleation Characteristics in Pool Boiling of a Wetting Liquid on Smooth and Rough Surfaces, John P. Mchale and S V. Garimella

Heat Transfer in Trapezoidal Microchannels of Various Aspect Ratios, John P. McHale and S V. Garimella

A microscale model for thin-film evaporation in capillary wick structures, Ram Ranjan, Jayathi Y. Murthy, and S V. Garimella

A numerical model for transport in flat heat pipes considering wick microstructure effects, Ram Ranjan, Jayathi Y. Murthy, S V. Garimella, and Unnikrishnan Vadakkan

Dynamic Analysis of an Electrostatically Actuated Pumping Device, Abhijit. A. Sathe, Eckhard A. Groll, and S V. Garimella

Characterization of Evaporation and Boiling from Sintered Powder Wicks Fed by Capillary Action, J. A. Weibel, S. V. Garimella, and M. T. North

Molten Salt Thermal Energy Storage in Thermoclines under Different Environmental Boundary Conditions, Z. Yang and S V. Garimella

Thermal analysis of solar thermal energy storage in a molten-salt thermocline, Z. Yang and S V. Garimella

#### Manuscripts from 2009

Analysis and Prediction of the Thermal Performance of Piezoelectrically Actuated Fans, T. Acikalin and S V. Garimella

A Composite Heat Transfer Correlation for Saturated Flow Boiling in Small Channels, S S. Bertsch, E A. Groll, and S V. Garimella

Effects of Heat Flux, Mass Flux, Vapor Quality, and Saturation Temperature on Flow Boiling Heat Transfer in Microchannels, S S. Bertsch, E A. Groll, and S V. Garimella

Nonlinear Aerodynamic Damping of Sharp-Edged Beams at Low Keulegan-Carpenter Numbers, Rahul A. Bidkar, Mark Kimber, Arvind Raman, Anil K. Bajaj, and S V. Garimella

Non-Intrusive Temperature Measurements Using Microscale Visualization Techniques, Pramod Chamarthy and S V. Garimella

Microscale Thermal Transport and Electromechanical Microfluidic Actuation, S. V. Garimella and D. Liu

Direct Simulation of Ionization and Ion Transport for Planar Microscale Ion Generation Devices, D. B. Go, T S. Fisher, and S V. Garimella

Planar Microscale Ionization Devices in Atmospheric Air with Diamond-Based Electrodes, D. B. Go, T. S. Fisher, S V. Garimella, and V. Bahadur

Effects of Channel Dimension, Heat Flux, and Mass Flux on Flow Boiling Regimes in Microchannels, Tannaz Harirchian and S V. Garimella

The Critical Role of Channel Cross-Sectional Area in Microchannel Flow Boiling Heat Transfer, Tannaz Harirchian and S V. Garimella

Effects of Discrete-Electrode Configuration on Traveling-Wave Electrohydrodynamic Pumping, B D. Iverson, L Cremaschi, and S V. Garimella

Experimental Characterization of Induction Electrohydrodynamics for Integrated Microchannel Pumping, Brian D. Iverson and S V. Garimella

Measurement and Prediction of the Cooling Characteristics of a Generalized Vibrating Piezoelectric Fan, Mark L. Kimber and S V. Garimella

Experimental Study of Aerodynamic Damping in Arrays of Vibrating Cantilevers, M. L. Kimber, R. Lonergan, and S V. Garimella

Microfluidic Pumping based on Traveling-Wave Dielectrophoresis, D Liu and S V. Garimella

Optimizaion of Electrostatically Actuated Miniature Compressors for Electronics Cooling, A. A. Sathe, E. A. Groll, and S V. Garimella

Optimization of Electrostatically Actuated Miniature Compressors for Electronics Cooling, A. A. Sathe, E. A. Groll, and S V. Garimella

Experimental and Numerical Study of Melting of Particle-Laden Materials in a Cylinder, Dawei Sun, S R. Annapragada, and S V. Garimella

Rarefied Gas Flow in Microtubes at Different Inlet-Outlet Pressure Ratios, Z. Yang and S V. Garimella

#### Manuscripts from 2008

Permeability and Thermal Transport in Compressed Open-Celled Foams, Ravi Annapragada, S V. Garimella, and Jayathi Y. Murthy

Analysis and Suppression of Base Separation in the Casting of a Cylindrical Ingot, Ravi Annapragada, Dawei Sun, and S V. Garimella

Electrothermal Bonding of Carbon Nanotubes to Glass, Sriharsha Aradhya, S V. Garimella, and Timothy Fisher

Energy Minimization-Based Analysis of Electrowetting for Microelectronics Cooling Applications, Vaibhav Bahadur and S V. Garimella

Flow Boiling Heat Transfer in Microchannel Cold Plate Evaporators for Electronics Cooling, S. S. Bertsch, E. A. Groll, and Suresh V. Garimella

Refrigerant Flow Boiling Heat Transfer in Parallel Microchannels as a Function of Local Vapor Quality, Stefan Bertsch, Eckhard A. Groll, and S V. Garimella

Review and Comparative Analysis of Studies on Saturated Flow Boiling in Small Channels,, Stefan Bertsch, Eckhard A. Groll, and S V. Garimella

Effects of Heat Flux, Mass Flux, Vapor Quality, and Saturation Temperature on Flow Boiling Heat Transfer in Microchannels, Stefan S. Bertsch, Eckhard A. Groll, and S V. Garimella

Visualization of Convection Patterns Near an Evaporating Meniscus using micro-PIV, Pramod Chamarthy, Hemanth Dhavaleswarapu, S V. Garimella, Jayathi Y. Murthy, and Steven Wereley

A Mathematical Model for Analyzing the Thermal Characteristics of a Flat Micro Heat Pipe with a Grooved Wick, K H. Do, S J. Kim, and S V. Garimella