The CTRC is a National Science Foundation Industry/University Cooperative Research Center, and addresses pre-competitive, longer-term research and development issues in the area of high-performance heat removal from compact spaces. The agenda for the Center is set on a yearly basis with research projects identified through a ranking by all members. Regular updates on the work are made available to members through a restricted-access web page. The Center meets twice a year to review progress and choose upcoming projects.

One of the distinctive features of CTRC is that the research agenda is set by the members—each member has a strong input in the research directions adopted. Since members are from diverse industries, beneficial cross-industry interactions are common. A product-oriented focus is maintained. Equipment manufacturers are included amongst the participants, and this facilitates a translation of research ideas and prototypes into products.

Link to the Cooling Technologies Research Center Web site

The following collection of documents represents research from the Cooling Technologies Research Center and related work by Dr. Suresh Garimella and his students.

#### Manuscripts from 2015

The Effect of Relative Humidity on Dropwise Condensation Dynamics, J. E. Castillo, J. A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

Spurious Current Suppression in VOF-CSF Simulation of Slug Flow through Small Channels, Z. Pan, J. A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

#### Manuscripts from 2014

Simulated Microstructural Evolution and Design of Porous Sintered Wicks, K. K. Bodla and S V. Garimella

3D Reconstruction and Design of Porous Media from Thin Sections, K. K. Bodla and S. V. Garimlle

Flow Visualization During Droplet Evaporation on Hydrophobic and Superhydrophobic Surfaces, S. Dash, A. Chandramohan, and S V. Garimella

Droplet Evaporation on Heated Hydrophobic and Superhydrophobic Surfaces, S. Dash and S. V. Garimella

Effect of Superhydrophobic Surface Morphology on Evaporative Deposition Patterns, M. Dicuangco, S. Dash, J. A. Weibel, and S. V. Garimella

System-Level Simulation of a Solar Power Tower Plant with Thermocline Thermal Energy Storage, S. Flueckiger, B. D. Iverson, Suresh V. Garimella, and J. Pacheco

Economic Optimization of a Concentrating Solar Power Plant with Molten-salt Thermocline Storage, S. M. Flueckiger

Latent-Heat Augmentation of Thermocline Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power – A System-Level Assessment, S. M. Flueckiger and S V. Garimella

Economic Optimization of a Concentrating Solar Power Plant with Molten-salt Thermocline Storage, S. M. Flueckiger, B. D. Iverson, and S V. Garimella

Investigation of Boiling Heat Transfer in Water using a Free-Particles-Based Enhancement Technique, T. Y. Kim

A Free-Particles-Based Technique for Boiling Heat Transfer Enhancement in a Wetting Liquid, T. Y. Kim, J. A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

Numerical Simulation of Single- and Dual-Media Thermocline Tanks for Energy Storage in Concentrating Solar Power Plants, C. Miiro-Hernandez, S. M. Flueckiger, and S V. Garimella

Technique for Quantitative Mapping of Three-Dimensional Liquid-Gas Phase Boundareis in Microchannel Flows, R. S. Patel and S. V. Garimella

Confined Jet Impingement with Boiling on a Variety of Enhanced Surfaces, M. Rau and S V. Garimella

Local Single- and Two-Phase Heat Transfer from an Impinging Cross-Shaped Jet, M. J. Rau, E. M. Dede, and S V. Garimella

Local Measurement of Flow Boiling Heat Transfer in an Array of Non-Uniformly Heated Microchannels, S. N. Ritchey, J. A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

Manifold Microchannel Heat Sink Design Using Optimization Under Uncertainty, S Sarangi, K. K. Bodla, Suresh V. Garimella, and J. Y. Murthy

Level-Set Shape Reconstruction of Binary Permittivity Distributions from Near-Field Focusing Capacitance Measurements, S. H. Taylor and S V. Garimella

Void Detection in Dielectric Films using a Floating Network of Substrate-Embedded Electrodes, S. H. Taylor and S V. Garimella

Design of a Non-intrusive Electrical Impedance-Based Void Fraction Sensor for Microchannel Two-Phase Flows, P. Valiorgue, S. N. Ritchey, Justin Weibel, and S V. Garimella

#### Manuscripts from 2013

Evaporation Analysis of Sintered Wick Microstructures, K. K. Bodla, J. Y. Murthy, and S V. Garimella

Optimization Under Uncertainty Applied to Heat Sink Design, K. K. Bodla, J. Y. Murthy, and S V. Garimella

Advances in Fluid and Thermal Transport Property Analysis and Design of Sintered Porous Wick Microstructures, K. K. Bodla, J. A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

Advances in Fluid and Thermal Transport Property Analysis and Design of Sintered Porous Wick Microstructures, K. K. Bodla, J. A. Weibel, and S V. Garimella

Linear Compressors for Electronics Cooling: Energy Recovery and the Useful Benefits, C. R. Bradshaw, E. A. Groll, and Suresh V. Garimella

Sensitivity Analysis of a Comprehensive Model for a Miniature-Scale Linear Compressor for Electronics Cooling, C. R. Bradshaw, E. A. Groll, and S V. Garimella

Evaporative Deposition on Superhydrophobic Surfaces, M. Dicuangco, S. Dash, and S V. Garimella

Nanotextured Superhydrophobic Electrodes Enable Detection of Attomolar-Scale DNA Concentration within a Droplet by Non-Faradaic Impedance Spectroscopy, A. Ebrahimi, P. Dak, E. Salm, S. Dash, Suresh V. Garimella, R. Bashir, and M. Alam

Design of Molten-Salt Thermocline Tanks for Solar Thermal Energy Storage, S. M. Flueckiger, Z. Yang, and S V. Garimella

Technological Drivers in Data Centers and Telecom Systems: Multiscale Thermal, Electrical, and Energy Management, S V. Garimella, T. Persoons, J. Weibel, and L.-T. Yeh

Metal Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes for Enhanced Sintered Powder Wicks, A. S. Kousalya, J A. Weibel, S V. Garimella, and T. S. Fisher

Nucleate Boiling from Smooth and Rough Surfaces--Part 1: Fabrication and Characterization of an Optically Transparent Heater-Sensor Substrate with Controlled Surface Roughness, J. P. McHale and S V. Garimella

Nucleate Boiling from Smooth and Rough Surfaces--Part 2: Analysis of Surface Roughness Effects on Nucleate Boiling, J. P. McHale and S V. Garimella

Evaporative Heat Transfer from an Electrowetted Liquid Ribbon on a Heated Substrate, Chris P. Migliaccio and S V. Garimella

Local Two-Phase Heat Transfer from Arrays of Submerged and Confined Impinging Jets, M. Rau and Suresh V. Garimella

Recent Advances in Vapor Chamber Transport Characterization for High Heat Flux Applications, J. A. Weibel and S V. Garimella

Pool Boiling Heat Transfer from Deformable Particulate Beds, J. A. Weibel, S. Sarangi, and S V. Garimella

Thermodynamic Comparison of Organic Rankine Cycles Employing Liquid-Flooded Expansion or a Solution Circuit, B. J. Woodland, A. Krishna, E. A. Groll, J. E. Braun, W. T. Horton, and S V. Garimella

Cyclic Operation of Molten-Salt Thermal Energy Storage in Thermoclines for Solar Power Plants, Z. Yang and S V. Garimella

#### Manuscripts from 2012

Droplet Retention on an Incline, S. R. Annapragada, J. Y. Murthy, and S V. Garimella

Prediction of Droplet Dynamics on an Incline, S. R. Annapragada, J. Y. Murthy, and S V. Garimella

Determination of Electrical Contact Resistivity in Thermoelectric Modules (TEMS) from Module-Level Measurements, S. R. Annapragada, T. Salamon, P. Kolodner, M. Hodes, and S V. Garimella

Topological Design of Channels for Squeeze Flow Optimization of Thermal Interface Materials, Nikhil Bajaj, Ganesh Subbarayan, and S V. Garimella

Direct Simulation of Thermal Transport through Sintered Wick Microstructures, K. K. Bodla, J. Y. Murthy, and S V. Garimella

A Study of Critical Heat Flux during Flow Boiling in Microchannel Heat Sinks, T. Chen and S V. Garimella

A Study of Critical Heat Flux during Flow Boiling in Microchannel Heat Sinks, T. Chen and S V. Garimella

The Importance of Turbulence during Condensation in a Horizontal Circular Minichannel, E. da Riva, Davide Del Col, S V. Garimella, and Alberto Cavallini

Frequency-dependent Transient Response of an Oscillating Electrically Actuated Droplet, S. Dash, N. Kumari, and S V. Garimella

Numerical Investigation of an Evaporating Meniscus in a Channel, H. K. Dhavaleswarapu, J. Y. Murthy, and S V. Garimella

Thermodynamic and Kinetic Investigation of a Chemical Reaction-Based Miniature Heat Pump, Scott M. Flueckiger, Fabien Volle, S V. Garimella, and Rajiv K. Mongia

Second-Law Analysis of Molten-Salt Thermal Energy Storage in Thermoclines, S. Flueckiger and S V. Garimella

Thermomechanical Simulation of the Solar One Thermocline Storage Tank, S. Flueckiger, Z. Yang, and S V. Garimella

Thermal Management Challenges in Telecommunication Systems and Data Centers, S V. Garimella, L.-T. Yeh, and T. Persoons

Multi-objective Optimization of Sustainable Single-Effect Water/Lithium Bromide Absorption Cycle, B. H. Gebreslassie, E. A. Groll, and S V. Garimella

Flow Regime-Based Modeling of Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop in Microchannel Flow Boiling, T. Harirchian and S. V. Garimella

Alternative Heat Rejection Methods for Power Plants, R. A. Leffler, C. R. Bradshaw, E. A. Groll, and S V. Garimella

Dissipative Forces in the Electrowetted Cassie-Wenzel Transition on Hydrophobic Rough Surfaces, C. P. Migliaccio and S V. Garimella

Electrical impedance-based void fraction measurement and flow regime identification in microchannel flows under adiabatic conditions, Sidharth Paranjape, Susan N. Ritchey, and S V. Garimella

Modeling and Design Optimization of Ultra-Thin Vapor Chambers for High Heat Flux Applications, R. Ranjan, J. Y. Murthy, S V. Garimella, D. H. Altman, and M. T. North

Wicking and Thermal Characteristics of Micropillared Structures for Use in Passive Heat Spreaders, R. Ranjan, A. Patel, S V. Garimella, and J. Murthy

Visualization of Vapor Formation Regimes during Capillary-Fed Boiling, J. A. Weibel and S V. Garimella

Carbon Nanotube Coatings for Enhanced Capillary-Fed Boiling from Porous Microstructures, J. A. Weibel, S. S. Kim, T. S. Fisher, and S V. Garimella

#### Manuscripts from 2011

A comprehensive model of a miniature-scale linear compressor for electronics cooling, Craig R. Bradshaw, Eckhard A. Groll, and S V. Garimella

Local Heat Transfer Distribution and Effect of Instabilities During Flow Boiling in a Silicon Microchannel Heat Sink, Tailian Chen and S V. Garimella

Characterization of Ultrahydrophobic Hierarchical Surfaces Fabricated Using Single-Step Fabrication Methodology, S. Dash, N. Kumari, and S V. Garimella

An Integrated Thermal and Mechanical Investigation of Molten-Salt Thermocline Energy Storage, S. Flueckiger, Z. Yang, and S V. Garimella

Boiling Heat Transfer and Flow Regimes in Microchannels – a Comprehensive Understanding, T. Harirchian and S V. Garimella

Characterization of the Heat Transfer Accompanying Electrowetting-Induced Droplet Motion, Niru Kumari and S V. Garimella

Pool Boiling Performance Comparison of Smooth and Sintered Copper Surfaces with and without Carbon Nanotubes, John P. McHale, S V. Garimella, Timothy S. Fisher, and Glen A. Powell

Measurements and Prediction of Thermal Contact Resistance across Coated Joints, C. Merrill and S V. Garimella

Temperature measurements near the contact line of an evaporating meniscus V-groove, Christopher P. Migliaccio, Hemanth K. Dhavaleswarapu, and S V. Garimella

Evaporative Heat and Mass Transfer from the Free Surface of a Liquid Wicked into a Bed of Spheres, Christopher P. Migliaccio and S V. Garimella

A microscale model for thin-film evaporation in capillary wick structures, Ram Ranjan, Jayathi Y. Murthy, and S V. Garimella

Transport in Passive, High Thermal Conductivity Heat Spreaders, R. Ranjan, S V. Garimella, and J. Y. Murthy

Assessment of Nanostructured Capillary Wicks for Passive, Two-Phase Heat Transport, R. Ranjan, S V. Garimella, J. Y. Murthy, and K. Yazawa

Numerical Investigation of Heat and Mass Transfer from an Evaporating Meniscus in a Heated Open Groove, H Wang, Z. Pan, and S V. Garimella

Design of Integrated Nanostructured Wicks for High-Performance Vapor Chambers, Justin A. Weibel, S V. Garimella, Jayathi Y. Murthy, and David H. Altman

#### Manuscripts from 2010

Electrical Actuation-Induced Droplet Transport on Smooth and Superhydrophobic Surfaces, V. Bahadur and S V. Garimella

Microtomography-Based Simulation of Transport Through Open-Cell Metal Foams, Karthik K. Bodla, Jayathi Y. Murthy, and S V. Garimella

Resistance network-based thermal conductivity model for metal foams, Karthik K. Bodla, Jayathi Y. Murthy, and S V. Garimella

Measurement of the Temperature Non-uniformity in a Microchannel Heat Sink Using Microscale Laser-Induced Fluorescence, P. Chamarthy, S. T. Wereley, and S V. Garimella

Simulation of Condensation in a Circular Minichannel: Application of VOF Method and Turbulence Model, E. Da Riva, E. Del Col, A. Cavallini, and Suresh V. Garimella

A comprehensive flow regime map for microchannel flow boiling with quantitative transition criteria, Tannaz Harirchian and S V. Garimella

Thermal Analog to AFM Force-Displacement Measurements for Nanoscale Interfacial Contact Resistance, B. D. Iverson, J. E. Blendell, and S V. Garimella

Pressure and Flow Rate Performance of Piezoelectric Fans, Mark Kimber, Kazuhiko Suzuki, Nobutaka Kitsunai, Kenichi Seki, and S V. Garimella

Analysis of Evaporating Mist Flow for Enhanced Convective Heat Transfer, N. Kumari, V. Bahadur, M. Hodes, T. Salamon, P. Kolodner, A. Lyons, and S V. Garimella

Bubble Nucleation Characteristics in Pool Boiling of a Wetting Liquid on Smooth and Rough Surfaces, John P. Mchale and S V. Garimella

Heat Transfer in Trapezoidal Microchannels of Various Aspect Ratios, John P. McHale and S V. Garimella

A numerical model for transport in flat heat pipes considering wick microstructure effects, Ram Ranjan, Jayathi Y. Murthy, S V. Garimella, and Unnikrishnan Vadakkan

Dynamic Analysis of an Electrostatically Actuated Pumping Device, Abhijit. A. Sathe, Eckhard A. Groll, and S V. Garimella

Characterization of Evaporation and Boiling from Sintered Powder Wicks Fed by Capillary Action, J. A. Weibel, S. V. Garimella, and M. T. North

Molten Salt Thermal Energy Storage in Thermoclines under Different Environmental Boundary Conditions, Z. Yang and S V. Garimella

Thermal analysis of solar thermal energy storage in a molten-salt thermocline, Z. Yang and S V. Garimella

#### Manuscripts from 2009

Analysis and Prediction of the Thermal Performance of Piezoelectrically Actuated Fans, T. Acikalin and S V. Garimella

A Composite Heat Transfer Correlation for Saturated Flow Boiling in Small Channels, S S. Bertsch, E A. Groll, and S V. Garimella

Effects of Heat Flux, Mass Flux, Vapor Quality, and Saturation Temperature on Flow Boiling Heat Transfer in Microchannels, S S. Bertsch, E A. Groll, and S V. Garimella

Nonlinear Aerodynamic Damping of Sharp-Edged Beams at Low Keulegan-Carpenter Numbers, Rahul A. Bidkar, Mark Kimber, Arvind Raman, Anil K. Bajaj, and S V. Garimella

Non-Intrusive Temperature Measurements Using Microscale Visualization Techniques, Pramod Chamarthy and S V. Garimella