Date of Award

Spring 2015

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



First Advisor

Jeong-Nam Kim

Committee Chair

Jeong-Nam Kim

Committee Member 1

Patrice Buzzanell

Committee Member 2

Seungyoon Lee

Committee Member 3

Meghan Norris


In response to calls for a tool to measure public diplomacy effectiveness, this study was inspired by the organization-public relationship assessment (OPRA) scale in public relations to develop the Relationship Assessment of Diplomatic Interaction Outcome (RADIO) scale. Its purpose is to measure the perceived relationship quality between a country and its foreign publics.Political, economic, cultural, interpersonal and corporate interactions are proposed to be antecedents whereas positive and negative megaphoningbehaviors are proposed to be outcomes. Perceived relationship quality in between the antecedents and outcomes classifies relationships into two types: experiential (those with direct experiences in terms of having visited a country) and reputational (those without such direct experiences). A total of 52 items is developed to measure perceived relationship quality. Four base dimensions are proposed for both experiential and reputational relationships, namely interactional bilateralism, power mutuality, empathyand trust. Two dimensions, namely relational continuation and relational satisfaction, are proposed for experiential relationships. Two dimensions, namely relational curiosity and relational attentiveness, are proposed for reputational relationships.