In early aircraft, the amount of fuel the aircraft could carry usually determined how long it could stay in flight. Today, with aircraft being able to air refuel, the time they are able to stay aloft is based more on human needs, one being waste management. Voiding urine in a single-seat ejection seat aircraft has been an issue for male pilots in the past, but with the increasing numbers of female pilots in single-seat aircraft, finding a solution has intensified. This paper reviews the various methods that are available for both male and female pilots, including the newest method which allows the pilot to vacuum urine into a containment vessel. Future improvements in waste management will continue to progress with time and technology. While these may involve improving ways to urinate in the cockpit, they could also involve ways to perhaps slow the production of urine by the body. But for the present, pilots will have to select from a pool of the devices currently available.
Schultz, Marian C.; Schultz, James T.; and Schultz, Joshua J.
"Female Relief Systems in U.S. Military Fighter Ejection Seat Aircraft,"
Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering:
2, Article 1.
Available at: https://doi.org/10.7771/2159-6670.1220