The problem-based learning (PBL) approach was implemented as a treatment for higher education visual arts students over one semester to examine its effect on the creative thinking and critical thinking disposition of these students. PBL had a significant effect on creative thinking, but critical thinking disposition was affected to a lesser degree. One possible reason for this result is that in this study, open structures were used for learning activities as a nonroutine problem-solving process to develop creative thinking. Accordingly, the results of this study indicate that PBL can help students with nonroutine problem-solving processes by maintaining uncertainty and enhancing creative thinking. However, a similar conclusion could not be reached for critical thinking disposition. Therefore, future studies regarding critical thinking disposition and the PBL approach should be conducted.

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