The World Health Organization (WHO) states it is a human right to have access to sufficient, safe water within one kilometer of the home (WHO, 2015b). However, 1.6 billion people experience economic water shortage and struggle to secure water for personal and domestic use (UN-Water & FAO, 2007). In the village of Endallah, Tanzania, seasonal rainfalls, high rates of evaporation, and inadequate water harvesting infrastructure leave many of the approximately 900 households facing economic water shortage. Around 90% of villagers depend on rainfed subsistence farming; however, annual crop yields are not consistent due to sporadic rainfall. The purpose of this research was to quantify water use, access, and needs in the village of Endallah to inform the design of a sustainable, community-based water harvesting system. In January 2015, a Purdue University Global Development Team traveled to Endallah to survey 25 households on their water collection and use. The results from the 12-question survey were coded, analyzed, and interpreted. The survey showed a significant need to improve water access in Endallah. Based on the survey results, most people in Endallah spend over three hours a day collecting water for domestic use. Water needs in Endallah have not been previously quantified, so the results will be crucial to the development of an accessible, community-based water harvesting system. Ultimately, by decreasing economic water shortage, the people of Endallah will have greater access to water for domestic consumption and can move toward using water to improve livestock health and agricultural productivity.