Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Psychological Sciences

First Advisor

George Hollich

Committee Chair

George Hollich

Committee Member 1

David J. Pupura

Committee Member 2

Sara A. Schmitt

Committee Member 3

Barbara A. Younger-Rossmann


This dissertation examines how training on the iPad can improve children’s quantity recognition, and whether different types of training might be warranted for children with different levels of experience. Study 1 tested the effects of multiple exemplar training (3 cars / 3 apples / 3 ducks, etc.) versus single exemplar training (3 cars / 3 cars / 3 cars, etc.) in recognizing quantities. For children just learning to recognize quantities (0-2 knowers), training with multiple exemplars was most effective for quantities three and four. For 3-6 knower children, single exemplar training was most effective for learning quantities five and six. Study 2 tested the effects of using a training set with perceptually distinct dice-like arrangements versus linear arrangements of objects in the quantity recognition task. 0-2 knower children tended to choose the familiar arrangements which were shown in the training session (regardless of quantity), while 3-6 knowers could pick out the correct quantity regardless of arrangement. This result suggests that selecting the right type of training is important for facilitating children’s early number learning.