Date of Award

Spring 2015

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Computer Engineering

First Advisor

Jan P. Allebach

Committee Chair

Jan P. Allebach

Committee Member 1

Jan P. Allebach

Committee Member 2

Charles A. Bouman

Committee Member 3

Mary L. Comer

Committee Member 4

Mireille Boutin


In the electrophotographic printing process, the deposition of toner within the area of a given printer addressable pixel is strongly influenced by the values of its neighboring pixels. The interaction between neighboring pixels, which is commonly referred to as dot-gain, is complicated. The printer models which are developed according to a pre-designed test page can either be embedded in the halftoning algorithm, or used to predict the printed halftone image at the input to an algorithm being used to assess print quality. In our research, we examine the potential influence of a larger neighborhood (45?45) of the digital halftone image on the measured value of a printed pixel at the center of that neighborhood by introducing a feasible strategy for the contribution. We developed a series of six models with different accuracy and computational complexity to account for local neighborhood effects and the influence of a 45?45 neighborhood of pixels on the central printer-addressable pixel tone development. All these models are referred to as Black Box Model (BBM) since they are based solely on measuring what is on the printed page, and do not incorporate any information about the marking process itself. We developed two different types of printer models Standard Definition (SD) BBM and High Definition (HD) BBM with capture device Epson Expression 10000XL (Epson America, Inc., Long Beach, CA, USA) flatbed scanner operated at 2400 dpi under different analysis resolutions. The experiment results show that the larger neighborhood models yield a significant improvement in the accuracy of the prediction of the pixel values of the printed halftone image. The sample function generation black box model (SFG-BBM) is an extension of SD-BBM that adds the printing variation to the mean prediction to improve the prediction by more accurately matching the characteristics of the actual printed image. We also followed a structure similar to that used to develop our series of BBMs to develop a two-stage toner usage predictor for electrophotographic printers. We first obtained on a pixel-by-pixel basis, the predicted absorptance of printed and scanned page with the digital input using BBM. We then form a weighted sum of these predicted pixel values to predict overall toner usage on the printed page. Our two-stage predictor significantly outperforms existing method that is based on a simple pixel counting strategy, in terms of both accuracy and robustness of the prediction.