Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Languages and Cultures

Committee Chair

John Sundquist

Committee Member 1

Mariko Wei

Committee Member 2

Margie Burns

Committee Member 3

April Ginther


The present study investigates the effectiveness of visual input enhancement across multiple proficiency levels on the noticing and L2 development of German vocabulary and reading. The study addresses several methodological issues in the extant literature and uses a complex organization to investigate possible differences in the effectiveness of visual input enhancement, a frequently used technique in L2 reading, across multiple proficiency levels in a typical L2 classroom setting at the university level. The study reveals that little to no differences exist across proficiency level and text level and that visual input enhancement, as is so often employed, has extremely limited potential for positive effects on L2 learners. In contrast, it is revealed to cause more harmful effects as opposed to aiding learners. The study also makes use of copious learner protocols to gain deeper insight into their thought processes while reading L2 texts to gauge their overall understanding and ability to acquire vocabulary.