With the advent of modern sensing technology, mapping products have begun to achieve an unprecedented precision of measurement. Considering their diverse use cases, several factors play a role in what would make the resulting measurements accurate. For light detection and ranging (LiDAR) and photogrammetry-based mapping solutions that implement vehicles outfitted with laser ranging devices, RGB cameras, and global navigation satellite system/inertial navigation system (GNSS/INS) georeferencing units, the quality of the derived mapping products is governed by the combined accuracy of the various sensors. While ranging errors associated with LiDAR systems or the imaging quality of RGB cameras are sensor-dependent and are mostly constant, the accuracy of a georeferencing unit depends on a variety of extrinsic factors, including but not limited to, availability of clear line-of-path to GNSS satellites and presence of radio interferences. The quality of the GNSS signal, in turn, is affected by the grade of hardware components used and, to a great extent, obstructions to signal reception. This document reports some of the major challenges of vehicle-based mobile mapping with regards to GNSS/INS navigation. The background of GNSS/INS positioning is discussed to build a framework for trajectory enhancement as well as improvement of LiDAR mapping products. The focus is put on using available sensor data from LiDAR and/or cameras to enhance their position/orientation quality. Some best practices in light of potential trajectory deterioration are also recommended.

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mobile mapping systems, direct georeferencing, LiDAR, registration, trajectory enhancement, semantic segmentation

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Performing Organization

Joint Transportation Research Program

Publisher Place

West Lafayette, IN

Date of this Version