This report provides a synthesis of issues addressed by state legislation regarding automated vehicles (AV); AV technologies are rapidly evolving and many states have developed legislation to govern AV testing and deployment and to assure safety on public roads. Topics include license and registration, operator requirements, insurance and liability, infrastructure, vehicle testing and operations, commercial vehicle operations and privacy.

States are interested in supporting AV because the expected benefits include increased safety, increased capacity, and decreased congestion. Other expected benefits include increased productivity due to hands-free travel and increased mobility for people unable to drive themselves. The projected economic impact of AV is significant, with an estimated market of $7 trillion by 2050. Although speculative, this value indicates the dramatic impact that AV may have on the future of transportation. The benefits of AV may be significant, however, there are also potential challenges, including the potential for increased costs, liability issues, licensing issues, security concerns, privacy considerations, and cybersecurity issues, as well as job losses in the transportation sector.

Legislative responses to this technology have varied significantly, depending on the state. Currently nineteen states and the District of Columbia have passed legislation related to AV, and four states have executive orders. Even if federal AV legislation is passed, there will still be an important role for states regarding AV licensure, registration, insurance, traffic laws, enforcement, infrastructure and emergency response. The objective of this research is to identify and synthesize current state legislation related to AV. The results provide important information as agencies and decision makers develop strategic plans for AV activities at every level.

Report Number



automated vehicle, state legislation

SPR Number


Performing Organization

Joint Transportation Research Program

Publisher Place

West Lafayette, Indiana

Date of this Version