Until 1991 most submariners were automatically disqualifed from submarine service after their first kidney stone. The basis for disqualification was the belief that these individuals would be at risk for recurrent episodes, which could result in mission compromising hazardous medical evacuations from deployed submarines. The purpose of this study is to examine the ramifications of returning submariners back to submarine duty following diagnosis of a renal stone.
Jackman, Robert P.; Harris, Robert A.; Tibbles, Patrick M.; and Perrotta, Peter L.
"Impact of Returning First-time Renal Stone Formers to Duty on United States Navy Submarines,"
Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments: Vol. 6
Available at: https://docs.lib.purdue.edu/jhpee/vol6/iss1/4