Background. Current evidence indicates that peanut consumption reduces cardiovascular disease risk, while posing little threat to positive energy balance. However, questions have been raised as to whether inter- and intraindividual variability in mastication in response to peanut form and processing properties may influence these health effects, since mastication has the potential to alter the bioaccessibility of nutrients within the nut matrix. Objective. To explore the relationship between peanut form and processing and masticatory function.Subjects/Methods. Thirty nine adults (16 M, 23 F; BMI: kg/; age: y) with healthy dentition chewed four different forms of peanuts until they would normally swallow and then expectorated the bolus. Surface electromyograms (EMGs) were obtained from the masseter and temporalis muscles during chewing of the four test foods. The maximum and mean bite forces, duration of chewing sequence, number of chews, and total muscle work for the complete chewing cycle were measured on the integrated EMG in fasted and sated states. Results. While no significant differences were noted in response to appetitive state, peanut form and processing had a significant influence on masticatory efficiency, as measured by proportional particle size distributions. The processed peanuts (honey roasted, roasted salted, and roasted unsalted) were chewed significantly fewer times compared to the unprocessed form (raw). Further, the proportional particle sizes within the swallowing bolus were significantly larger for the processed forms compared to the unprocessed form. Conclusion. These observations may have implications for bioaccessibility of energy and cardioprotective nutrients as well as endocrine responses, following peanut consumption.
Date of this Version
McKiernan, Fiona and Mattes, Richard D., "Effects of Peanut Processing on Masticatory Performance During Variable Appetitive States." (2009). Department of Nutrition Science Faculty Publications. Paper 9.