Effects of dietary protein and meal frequency on appetite during weight loss
Foods and Nutrition
Nutrition, Fitness, and Health
CFS, F&N, Protein, Meal Frequency
BACKGROUND: Higher protein diets (intake > recommended 10-15% daily calories from protein) are a popular approach to promote weight loss. Meal patterning (frequency) also may influence satiety and ultimately promote longer-term energy balance and body weight control.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of protein intake and meal frequency on indices of daily appetite in overweight to obese men while in a longer-term energy restricted state.
METHODS: Eleven males (age 35 to 69y; BMI 26.58 to 35.04kg/m2) who had chronically consumed a 750 kcal/d energydeficit diet with either 1.4g protein·kg-1·d-1 of energy as protein (higher-protein group; HP; n=6) or 0.8g protein·kg-1·d-1 of energy as protein (normal protein; NP; n=5) for a minimum of 6 weeks were tested. In random order on separate weeks, each subject consumed their prescribed diet for three days using a 3 meals/d (at 08:00, 13:00, and 18:00 h) and 6 meals/d pattern (at 08:00, 10:00, 12:00, 14:00, 16:00, and 18:00 h). An appetite questionnaire rating their hunger, fullness, and desire to eat on a 1-100 mm scale was completed hourly starting upon waking.
RESULTS: Independent of meal patterning, hunger (P=0.031) and desire to eat (P=0.026) areas under the curve (AUC) were lower and fullness AUC was higher (P=0.028) in the HP group vs. NP group. Hunger AUC tended to be lower for the 6 meal pattern (P=0.08), while desire to eat AUC and fullness AUC were not different between the 3 vs. 6 meal pattern. Protein intake did not influence these responses.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that higher protein intake promotes daily satiety during weight loss. Daily diets consumed in smaller frequent meals may lead to reduced hunger.
Thomas, Sarah, "Effects of dietary protein and meal frequency on appetite during weight loss" (2009). CFS Honors Program Undergraduate Theses. 10.