This study compares workplace dispute resolution strategies (exit, voice, and toleration) in matched pairs of conventional and worker-owned cooperative organizations operating in three industries – coal mining, taxicab driving, and organic food distribution. Building on Hirschman’s classic exit, voice, and loyalty thesis, this research demonstrates how the degree of loyalty that workers hold affects how they approach workplace problems. I find that workers with greater loyalty are more likely to embrace “voice” as a way to address their problems. Although the “exit” patterns do not mirror the classic “exit-voice framework,” the data do support Hirschman’s broader thesis, which incorporates examination of emotional involvement, and entry and exit costs.


This is the accepted version of

Hoffmann, Elizabeth A. “Exit and Voice: Organizational Loyalty and Dispute Resolution Strategies.” Social Forces 84, no. 4 (2006): 2313–30. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3844502.

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