Nanotechnology 14,5 (2003) 562-565;
Non-contact electrostatic force microscopy techniques were used to study the open-circuit photovoltage of purple membrane multilayers electrodeposited on indium tin oxide. A humidity-dependent photovoltage response under illumination by a 635 nm photodiode was observed. Peak photovoltages in excess of 2 V at similar to36 W m(-2) were obtained for similar to15% relative humidity.
self-assembled monolayers;; purple-membrane;; proton pump;; films;; orientation;; microscopy;; mechanism;; field
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