Characterisation of frozen orange juice by ultrasound and wavelet analysis
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 84,5 (2004) 405-410;
Ultrasound technology was used to analyse the freezing behaviour of orange juice. The ultrasonic properties of orange juice, specifically velocity and attenuation coefficient, were characterised as the temperature was decreased from 20 to -50degreesC. The results were compared with NMR free induction decay data and correlated with the amount of unfrozen water present in the frozen sample. The velocities of longitudinal waves (P-wave) and shear waves (S-wave) in frozen orange juice were measured, yielding values of around 4000 and 2000 m s(-1) respectively. They were related to the amount of unfrozen water in the frozen sample. The elastic moduli of the samples at different temperatures were obtained from the measured ultrasonic velocities. Significant changes in the attenuation of the ultrasonic waves propagated through the frozen sample were observed as a result of ice nucleation and growth. Information about the spectral behaviour of the ultrasound signal was obtained by means of wavelet analysis. The analysis provided a direct measure of the spectral content of the ultrasonic waves over time and showed the variation in the ultrasonic velocity dispersion with temperature. Significant velocity dispersions occurred for frequencies less than 1 MHz. (C) 2004 Society of Chemical Industry.
frozen food;; ultrasound;; velocity;; attenuation;; elastic moduli;; wavelet;; velocity-measurements;; interface waves;; water;; ice;; temperature;; emulsions;; fracture;; foods;; sound;; speed
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