Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Psychological Sciences

First Advisor

James M. Tyler

Committee Chair

James M. Tyler

Committee Member 1

Kipling D. Williams

Committee Member 2

William G. Graziano


The current project examined the effect of social exclusion on regulatory focus motivations (promotion and prevention focus). Building on previous work, I posited that whether exclusion activates a more promotion or prevention focus depends on the person’s initial standing with the group (i.e., initial member vs. non-member). Additionally, I hypothesized that regulatory focus motivations should influence excluded individuals’ subsequent social reconnection efforts. In two studies, participants were socially excluded after either being included or not as an initial member of the excluding group; in a first study, participants also had the opportunity to reconnect with a new social partner. Results were generally supportive of hypotheses: social exclusion activated a more promotion (vs. prevention) focus when participants were initial non-members (vs. members) of the excluding group. In Study 1, participants’ regulatory focus also influenced the extent to which they wanted to work with a new social partner. Implications for social exclusion and regulatory focus work are discussed.