Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Organizational Behavior & Human Resources Management

Committee Chair

Benjamin Dunford

Committee Member 1

Sharon Christ

Committee Member 2

Brian Dineen

Committee Member 3

Ellen Ernst Kossek

Committee Member 4

Kelly Wilson


Perspectives which extend study of work-nonwork interface from the individual level of analysis to the workgroup level are dominated by homologous assumptions. These homologous assumptions are characterized by (a) shared perceptions within workgroups and (b) parallel relationships similar in direction and magnitude across levels. I return to the basics of multilevel theory to consider these assumptions more closely, specifically in the context of family supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSB). Across three chapters, I present the FSSB Separation Framework. Chapter 1 develops theory to explain not only why within-group variation (i.e., a separation in or relative lack of shared perceptions) regarding FSSB should be expected, but also how this presents a boundary condition to the applicability of the tenets of multilevel theory. Chapter 2 considers both between-group variation and within-group variation to explain why relationships at the workgroup level are not homologous. The most notable finding is that of an inverse, U-shaped curvilinear relationship involving workgroup-level FSSB, suggesting that moderate—as opposed to low—levels of FSSB are most problematic for workgroup-related outcomes. Chapter 3 further uncovers a potential, unintended downside of FSSB, emphasizing the importance of within-group variation regarding FSSB perceptions by identifying it as a focal predictor which contributes to relationship conflict within workgroups. Overall, the FSSB Separation Framework presents a paradigm shift by challenging current thinking and developing new, multilevel theory for the work-nonwork interface.