Purpose: Dog owners represent 40% of the population, a promising audience to increase population levels of physical activity. The purpose of this study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of a new instrument to assess social cognitive theory (SCT) constructs related to dog walking. Methods: Dog owners (N=431) completed the Dogs and WalkinG Survey (DAWGS). Survey items assessed dog walking behaviors, and self-efficacy, social support, outcome expectations, and outcome expectancies for dog walking. Test-retest reliability was assessed among 252 (58%) survey respondents who completed the survey twice. Factorial validity and factorial invariance by age and walking level were tested using confirmatory factor analysis. Results: DAWGS items demonstrated moderate test-retest reliability (r=.39-.79; k=.41-.89). Acceptable model fit was found for all subscales. All subscales were invariant by age and walking level, except self-efficacy, which showed mixed evidence of invariance. Conclusions: The DAWGS is a psychometrically sound instrument for examining individual and interpersonal correlates of dog walking.
confirmatory factor analysis, measurement invariance, physical activity, social cognitive theory
Date of this Version
Richards, Elizabeth; McDonough, Meghan H.; Edwards, Nancy E.; Lyle, Roseann M.; and Troped, Philip J., "Development and Psychometric Testing of the Dogs and WalkinG Survey (DAWGS)" (2013). School of Nursing Faculty Publications. Paper 13.