Nanocarbon-Scanning Probe Microscopy Synergy: Fundamental Aspects to Nanoscale Devices
Date of this Version5-14-2014
Scanning probe techniques scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) have emerged as unique local probes for imaging, manipulation, and modification of surfaces at the nanoscale. Exercising the fabrication of atomic and nansocale devices with desired properties have demanded rapid development of scanning probe based nanolithographies. Dip pen nanolithography (DPN) and local anodic oxidation (LAO) have been widely employed for fabricating functional patterns and prototype devices at nanoscale. This review discusses the progress in AFM bias lithography with focus on nanocarbon species on which many functional quantum device structures have been realized using local electrochemical and electrostatic processes. As water meniscus is central to AFM bias lithography, the meniscus formation, estimation and visualization is discussed briefly. A number of graphene-based nanodevices have been realized on the basis AFM bias lithography in the form of nanoribbons, nanorings and quantum dots with sufficiently small dimensions to show quantum phenomena such as conductance fluctuations. Several studies involving graphitic surfaces and carbon nanotubes are also covered. AFM based scratching technique is another promising approach for the fabrication of nanogap electrodes, important in molecular electronics.
Nanoscience and Nanotechnology