Observation of Low Energy Raman Modes in Twisted Bilayer Graphene

Rui He, University of Northern Iowa
Ting Fung Chung, Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University
Conor Delaney, University of Northern Iowa
Courtney Keiser, University of Northern Iowa
Luis A. Jauregui, Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University
Paul M. Shand, University of Northern Iowa
C. C. Chancey, University of Northern Iowa
Yanan Wang, University of Houston
Jiming Bao, University of Houston
Yong P. Chen, Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University

Date of this Version



Two new Raman modes below 100 cm(-1) are observed in twisted bilayer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition. The two modes are observed in a small range of twisting angle at which the intensity of the G Raman peak is strongly enhanced, indicating that these low energy modes and the G Raman mode share the same resonance enhancement mechanism, as a function of twisting angle. The similar to 94 cm(-1) mode (measured with a 532 nm laser excitation) is assigned to the fundamental layer breathing vibration (ZO' mode) mediated by the twisted bilayer graphene lattice, which lacks long-range translational symmetry. The dependence of this mode's frequency and line width on the rotational angle can be explained by the double resonance Raman process that is different from the previously identified Raman processes activated by twisted bilayer graphene superlattice. The dependence also reveals the strong impact of electronic-band overlaps of the two graphene layers. Another new mode at similar to 52 cm(-1), not observed previously in the bilayer graphene system, is tentatively attributed to a torsion mode in which the bottom and top graphene layers rotate out-of-phase in the plane.


Nanoscience and Nanotechnology