Quantitative Analysis of the Functionalization of Gallium Phosphide With Organic Azides

David Richards, Purdue University
Philip Luce, Purdue University
Dmitry Zemlyanov, Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University
Albena Ivanisevic, North Carolina State University

Date of this Version



Quantitative Analysis of the Functionalization of Gallium Phosphide With Organic Azides Authors David Richards, Philip Luce, Dmitry Zemlyanov, Albena Ivanisevic. J. Scanning Microscopies. Volume 34, Issue 5 September / October 2012 Pages 332–340


Gallium phosphide (GaP) surfaces were functionalized with two different molecules that contain an azide moiety at their terminus. Compound 4-azidophenacyl bromide (4AB) is an aryl azide with a bromine group at its opposite terminus that provides easy identification of the molecule's presence on the surface with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). O-(2-aminoethyl)-O'-(2-azidoethyl)pentaethylene glycol (AAP) is a small poly(ethylene glycol) molecule with an amine group at its opposite terminus. Atomic force microscopy was used to identify the uniformity of the clean and functionalized GaP surfaces. Water contact angle revealed a more hydrophobic surface with AAP functionalization (33 degrees) and even more hydrophobic (53 degrees) with the 4AB functionalized surface compared to a clean surface (16 degrees). XPS confirmed the presence of each of the organic azides on the surface. XPS was further used to calculate the adlayer thickness of each functionalization. This analysis revealed an adlayer thickness of about 8 angstrom for the 4AB functionalized surfaces compared to 1 angstrom for the AAP adlayer, which led to the conclusion that AAP functionalization only provided partial coverage. A stability study using 4AB-functionalized surfaces showed good stability in saline solutions with varying concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. Finally, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to evaluate the gallium concentration in the stability solutions. While the functionalization with the organic azides did not provide complete suppression of gallium leaching, both of the azides decreased the leaching by 1050%. SCANNING 34: 332340, 2012. (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Nanoscience and Nanotechnology