A self referencing platinum nanoparticle decorated enzyme-based microbiosensor for real time measurement of physiological glucose transport
Date of this Version1-15-2011
Biosensors and Bioelectronics Volume 26, Issue 5, 15 January 2011, Pages 2237–2245
Glucose is the central molecule in many biochemical pathways, and numerous approaches have been developed for fabricating micro biosensors designed to measure glucose concentration in/near cells and/or tissues. An inherent problem for microsensors used in physiological studies is a low signal-to-noise ratio, which is further complicated by concentration drift due to the metabolic activity of cells. A microsensor technique designed to filter extraneous electrical noise and provide direct quantification of active membrane transport is known as self-referencing. Self-referencing involves oscillation of a single microsensor via computer-controlled stepper motors within a stable gradient formed near cells/tissues (i.e., within the concentration boundary layer). The non-invasive technique provides direct measurement of trans-membrane (or trans-tissue) analyte flux. A glucose micro biosensor was fabricated using deposition of nanomaterials (platinum black, multiwalled carbon nanotubes, Nafion) and glucose oxidase on a platinum/iridium microelectrode. The highly sensitive/selective biosensor was used in the self-referencing modality for cell/tissue physiological transport studies. Detailed analysis of signal drift/noise filtering via phase sensitive detection (including a post-measurement analytical technique) are provided. Using this highly sensitive technique, physiological glucose uptake is demonstrated in a wide range of metabolic and pharmacological studies. Use of this technique is demonstrated for cancer cell physiology, bioenergetics, diabetes, and microbial biofilm physiology. This robust and versatile biosensor technique will provide much insight into biological transport in biomedical, environmental, and agricultural research applications. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nanoscience and Nanotechnology