Polarity effects in the x-ray photoemission of ZnO and other wurtzite semiconductors

M. W. Allen, University of Canterbury
Dmitry Zemlyanov, Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University
G.I.N. Waterhouse, University of Auckland
J. B. Metson, University of Auckland
T. D. Veal, University of Warwick
C. F. McConville, University of Warwick
S. M. Durbin, State University of New York (SUNY) Buffalo

Date of this Version



Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 101906 (2011)


Copyright (2011) American Institute of Physics. This article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the author and the American Institute of Physics. The following article appeared in ACS Nano, 2011, 5 (3), pp 2109–2117 and may be found at http://dx.doi.org/. The following article has been submitted to/accepted by [Name of Journal]. Copyright (year) Author(s). This article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.


Significant polarity-related effects were observed in the near-surface atomic composition and valence band electronic structure of ZnO single crystals, investigated by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy using both Al K(alpha) (1486.6 eV) and synchrotron radiation (150 to 1486 eV). In particular, photoemission from the lowest binding energy valence band states was found to be significantly more intense on the Zn-polar face compared to the O-polar face. This is a consistent effect that can be used as a simple, nondestructive indicator of crystallographic polarity in ZnO and other wurtzite semiconductors. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3562308]


Nanoscience and Nanotechnology