Transforming the Fabrication and Biofunctionalization of Gold Nanoelectrode Arrays into Versatile Electrochemical Glucose Biosensors

Jonathan C. Claussen, Bindley Bioscience Center, Purdue University
Monique Wickner, Purdue University
Timothy S. Fisher, Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University
D. Marshall Porterfield, Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University

Date of this Version



ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 2011, 3 (5), pp 1765–1770


High-density arrays of conducting nanoelectrodes (i.e., nanoelectrode arrays [NEAs]) have been developed on the surface of a single electrode for numerous electrochemical sensing paradigms. However, a scalable fabrication technique and robust biofunctionalization protocol are oftentimes lacking and thus many NEA designs have limited efficacy and overall commercial viability M biosensing applications. In this report, we develop a lithography-free nanofabrication protocol to create large arrays of Au nanoelectrodes on a silicon wafer via a porous anodic alumina template. To demonstrate their effectiveness as electrochemical glucose biosensors, alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are used to covalently attach the enzyme glucose oxidase to the Au NBA surface for subsequent glucose sensing. The sensitivity and linear sensing range of the biosensor is controlled by introducing higher concentrations of long-chain SAMs (11-mercaptoundecanoic acid: MUA) with short-chain SAMs (3-mercaptopropionic acid: MPA) into the enzyme immobilization scheme, This facile NBA fabrication protocol (that is well-suited for integration into electronic devices) and biosensor performance controllability (via the mixed-length enzyme-conjugated SAMs) transforms the Au NEAs into versatile glucose biosensors. Thus these Au NEAs could potentially be used in important real-word applications such as in health-care and bioenergy where biosensors with very distinct sensing capabilities are needed.


Nanoscience and Nanotechnology