The rapid progress in nanofabrication technologies has led to the emergence of new classes of nano-devices, in which the quantum nature of charge carriers dominates the device properties and performance. The need for atomistic-level modeling is particularly clear in studies of quantum dots. Quantum dots are solid-state structures capable of trapping charge carriers so that their wave functions become fully spatially localized, and their energy spectra consist of wellseparated, discrete levels. Existing nanofabrication techniques make it possible to manufacture quantum dots in a variety of types and sizes . Among them, semiconductor quantum dots grown by self-assembly (SADs), trapping electrons as well as holes, are of particular importance in quantum optics, since they can be used as detectors of infrared radiation , optical memories , single photon sources . Arrays of quantum-mechanically coupled SADs can also be used as optically active regions in high-efficiency, room-temperature lasers .
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