We survey some of the rich history of control over the past century with a focus on the major milestones in adaptive systems. We review classic methods and examples in adaptive linear systems for both control and observation/identification. The focus is on linear plants to facilitate understanding, but we also provide the tools necessary for many classes of nonlinear systems. We discuss practical issues encountered in making these systems stable and robust with respect to additive and multiplicative uncertainties. We discuss various perspectives on adaptive systems and their role in various fields. Finally, we present some of the ongoing research and expose problems in the field of adaptive control.


This is the publisher's version of Black, W.S.; Haghi, P.; Ariyur, K.B. Adaptive Systems: History, Techniques, Problems, and Perspectives. Systems 2014, 2, 606-660. 10.3390/systems2040606, published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).


systems; adaptation; control; identification; nonlinear

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