Presentation made at Mackinder Forum Webinar August 22, 2020.


Urban warfare is as old as human history. It is becoming increasingly important in international political and military planning due to increasing global urbanization and the presence of megacities (urban areas with populations exceeding 10 million) in many global regions and being in areas of recent and potential military conflict. 2018 World Bank data notes that approximately 56% of the world's population lives in urban areas which is up from 34% in 1960. Many of these megacities, including New York City, Los Angeles, Sao Paulo, Mumbai, Shanghai, and Manila are adjacent to oceanic waters and vulnerable to trade and supply chain disruptions. Urban warfare is likely to produce higher than normal death rates and may be exacerbated by pandemics, political corruption, civil unrest, technological innovation, and numerous other sociopolitical problems. It also poses acute moral problems which may be readily resolved by existing international law and Judeo-Christian morality. This presentation to international panel examined historical, contemporary, and emerging urban warfare geopolitical and conflict scenarios while also posing economic, moral, political, and social questions that must be addressed by scholars and policymakers.


international security, urban warfare, geopolitics, military planning, civil unrest, international law, military law, military ethics, artificial intelligence, subterranean combat, pandemics

Date of this Version