Published in Security and Defence Quarterly published by Poland's National War University. September 2019, Volume 26, Number 4, p.3-33.


OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper is to analyse Baltic security developments from U.S. government and military resources, scholarly journal articles, and multinational public policy research institute assessments. METHODS: The aim is to analyse the content and rhetoric within these resources to learn how those producing these materials view Baltic security developments and their viewpoints on how the U.S. and its allies should respond to these developments focusing on increasing Russian regional assertiveness. RESULTS: The author provides interpretations of Baltic security developments, Russian Baltic policy, and U.S. and NATO responses to these developments in materials produced by U.S. civilian and military policymakers and multinational scholarly analysis. Includes performance assessments of U.S. programs including the European Deterrence Initiative and potential Russian military activity in the Baltics as reflected in varying reports by the U.S. Government, military, and multinational public policy research institutions. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the author recommends that U.S. and NATO countries recognize a new Cold War exists with a revisionist Russia and also advocates continuing NATO military exercises, upgrading civilian and military infrastructure protection, and enhancing U.S. and allied preparedness. The author also urges ongoing and candid dialogue between NATO and Russia to keep this situation from erupting into war. Insists the U.S. and its allies adroitly respond to Russian attempts to influence and manipulate public opinion toward Moscow. Finally, the author expresses concern that U.S. partisan division over the 2016 Russian interference in the U.S. presidential election makes achieving greater Baltic policy cohesion difficult. Advocates warning Russia of devastating consequences of attempts to militarily invade or subvert Baltic countries.


European Deterrence Initiative, Baltic Security, geopolitics, Russia, European security, U.S. national security policy, NATO security policy

Date of this Version