Significant variation exists in bilinguals’ experiences with code-switching, from dense code-switching in multiple interactional contexts to minimal switching. Although recent research has demonstrated that a bilingual’s experience with code-switching is a crucial factor for determining both linguistic and cognitive behaviors, there currently is no commonly accepted method of measuring of a bilingual’s code-switching practices. Responding to this need, this paper presents a new tool to assess a bilingual’s experience and engagement with code-switching — the Bilingual Code-Switching Profile (BCSP) — and assesses its validity and reliability. The BCSP incorporates a multifaceted conceptualization of code-switching experience, drawing on previous research in bilingual proficiency, and addresses a bilingual’s code-switching history, use, proficiency, and attitudes. To assess the validity and reliability of the BCSP, Spanish–English bilinguals (N = 454) from a wide range of ages, ethnic backgrounds, national origins, and language dominance profiles completed the questionnaire. Results of an exploratory factor analysis and intraclass correlation on test-retest data (N = 248) demonstrate that the BCSP is a valid and reliable method of assessing a bilingual’s code-switching profile. The BCSP can be easily and practically incorporated into future research on bilinguals to provide a systematic measure of an individual’s code-switching profile.


This is the author-accepted manuscript of Olson, D. J. (2022). The Bilingual Code-Switching Profile (BCSP): Assessing the reliability and validity of the BCSP questionnaire. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 1–29. Copyright John Benjamins, the version of record is available at DOI: 10.1075/lab.21039.ols. Reuse requests should be directed to publisher and copyright holder.


code-switching, bilingualism, bilingual experience, self-assessment, questionnaire development

Date of this Version