The Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) completed a total of 25 high friction surface treatment (HFST) projects across the state in 2018. This research study attempted to investigate the durability and performance of HFST in terms of its HFST-pavement system integrity and surface friction performance. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the physical and mechanical properties of epoxy-bauxite mortar. Field inspections were carried out to identify site conditions and common early HFST distresses. Cyclic loading test and finite element method (FEM) analysis were performed to evaluate the bonding strength between HFST and existing pavement, in particular chip seal with different pretreatments such as vacuum sweeping, shotblasting, and scarification milling. Both surface friction and texture tests were undertaken periodically (generally once every 6 months) to evaluate the surface friction performance of HFST. Crash records over a 5-year period, i.e., 3 years before installation and 2 years after installation, were examined to determine the safety performance of HFST, crash modification factor (CMF) in particular.

It was found that HFST epoxy-bauxite mortar has a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) significantly higher than those of hot mix asphalt (HMA) mixtures and Portland cement concrete (PCC), and good cracking resistance. The most common early HFST distresses in Indiana are reflective cracking, surface wrinkling, aggregate loss, and delamination. Vacuum sweeping is the optimal method for pretreating existing pavements, chip seal in particular. Chip seal in good condition is structurally capable of providing a sound base for HFST. On two-lane highway curves, HFST is capable of reducing the total vehicle crash by 30%, injury crash by 50%, and wet weather crash by 44%, and providing a CMF of 0.584 in Indiana. Great variability may arise in the results of friction tests on horizontal curves by the use of locked wheel skid tester (LWST) due both to the nature of vehicle dynamics and to the operation of test vehicle. Texture testing, however, is capable of providing continuous texture measurements that can be used to calculate a texture height parameter, i.e., mean profile depth (MPD), not only for evaluating friction performance but also implementing quality control (QC) and quality assurance (QA) plans for HFST.

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high friction surface friction, durability, friction number, surface texture, mean profile depth, epoxy-bauxite mortar, surface pretreatment, chip seal, vacuum sweeping, shotblasting, scarification milling, early distress, bonding, reflective cracking, crash modification factor

SPR Number


Performing Organization

Joint Transportation Research Program

Publisher Place

West Lafayette, IN

Date of this Version