It is proposed that performance degradation from exposure to non-lethal technology is mediated by impulsive and reflective approachavoidance motivation. An approach-avoidance motivational framework was used to specify a four-stage information processing model that predicts performance degradation. The first stage is Evaluation: it processes physiological, sensory, perceptual, and cognitive information. The second stage is Comparison: it processes the content of the Evaluation into avoidance and approach motivational indices. The third stage is Probability: it processes information from previous stages into a probability of choosing to continue or abandon goal-directed behavior. Finally, the fourth stage is Performance: it processes performance accuracy on a given task and occurs only when people continue their goal after dissuasive technology exposure. Depending on previous stages, performance can be degraded on tasks relevant to goal completion. An experiment was used to validate the model. Results supported the hypothesis that information is processed using the approach-avoidance motivational framework.
Mojica, Andrew J.; Bartak, Christopher P.; Mitchell, Joseph N.; and Ashworth, Alan
"Using an Approach-Avoidance Framework to Understand the Relationship between Non-Lethal Weapons and Performance,"
Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments: Vol. 18
Available at: https://docs.lib.purdue.edu/jhpee/vol18/iss1/4