As energy constraints and consumption in the world increase, it is important to investigate all areas of technology for improvement. In the residential building sector, clothes drying is a significant consumer of energy accounting for 6% of residential electricity in the U.S. (EPA, 2011). Heat pump technology has become increasingly popular for residential tumble clothes dryers. This paper presents a detailed review of heat pump tumble dryer research covering technologies for air conditioning waste heat recovery, recuperative heat exchangers, system modeling, and control optimization. Additional technologies related more broadly to vapor compression cycle enhancement are also reviewed, including alternative working fluids, variable-capacity systems, and component technologies. Future areas for research are identified to enable the next generation of heat pump dryer energy efficiency.