Battery electric vehicle, thermal management, secondary loop, waste heat recovery, equivalent circuit model
Due to increasing regulation on emissions and shifting consumer preferences, the wide adoption of battery electric vehicles (BEV) hinges on research and development of technologies that can extend system range. This can be accomplished either by increasing the battery size or via more efficient operation of the electrical and thermal systems. This study evaluates the range performance of a BEV integrated thermal management system (ITMS) with heat pumping and waste heat recovery across a range of ambient conditions (-20 °C to 40 °C) and cabin setpoints (18 °C to 24 °C). A dynamic ITMS modelling framework for a long-range electric vehicle is established with comprehensive sub models for the operation of the drive train, power electronics, battery, vapor compression cycle components, and cabin conditioning. This modelling framework is used to construct a baseline thermal management system. The waste heat recovery (WHR) system is compared to the baseline and shown to offers significant benefit in terms of driving range for long-range BEV drive cycles in terms of system range and transient response.