Conference Year



carbon dioxide, two-phase flow, transcritical ejector, numerical simulation, expansion modelling


Naturalbased working fluids for refrigeration are becoming a standard commercial solution due to the dynamic research and development in this area as well as law regulations. The stateoftheart ejector technology for R744 systems reached current status due to a significant interest on modelling approaches and effective regulation concepts. The development path of the fast and efficient design tools based on the numerical simulations could be described as a key feature for the R744 commercial technology. In this study, one of the most effective numerical approaches dedicated for the twophase CO2 ejector design and analysis is discussed. Namely, homogeneous equilibrium and relaxation model for high motive pressures and mixture approach for lower motive pressures were reviewed. According to the requirements of the effective design tools, the comparison also included a prediction of the vapour quality at given operating conditions and the corresponding computational costs. Moreover, several research studies on swirling and bypassing solutions as well as commercial applications of multiejector device and reduced order models for regulation systems where aforementioned models were used was described. Conclusions on a potential of the reviewed approaches were formulated having regard possible utilisation for the design process of the ejector based R744 systems.