Cold Climate Heat Pump, Modeling, Low-GWP, Simulation
The next generation of heat pumps (HPs), including those intended for cold climates must transition to low-global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants to mitigate climate change. HPs must be designed to alleviate the problems of excessive discharge temperatures, low suction pressure and high-pressure ratio at low ambient conditions and insufficient heating capacity relative to the rated heating capacity. In this paper we recognize those concerns. Low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants are screened based on the shape of their temperature-entropy (T-S) saturation boundary. Simulations of the two-stage HP with low GWP refrigerants (R32, R454B, R466A, and R452B) to replace R-410A was accomplished using the DOE/ORNL Heat Pump Design Model. Systemic inefficiency was addressed by component-level exergy analysis to refine design options. HPs with low-GWP refrigerants address issues of reducing energy consumption, lowering carbon footprint, and enabling environmental sustainability.