CO2 heat pump; hot and cold storage; Modelica-based modeling; dynamic optimal control; genetic algorithm
This study presents a model-based dynamic optimization strategy for a dual-mode CO2 heat pump coupled with hot and cold thermal storages, which was proposed as a high-efficiency smart grid enabling option in heating and cooling services for buildings or industry. Dynamic optimal control for simultaneously charging of hot and cold thermal storages is very delicate. The optimal control of compressor discharge pressure were commonly used for optimal control of heat pump systems. In this study, the outlet water temperatures of hot and cold tanks are used as indicators in the dynamic optimal strategy for charging of hot and cold storages using a dual-mode heat pump. The Modelica based dynamic model of the coupled system was developed and validated. To optimize the overall coefficient of performance (COP) during energy process, the transient total COP is optimized by genetic algorithm based on Modelica-based modeling of dynamic system. A dynamic optimal control strategy was developed and implemented into an experimental system. Test results show that this developed model-based dynamic optimal control strategy is able to search the optimal transient total COP and optimize the overall COP of such coupled systems during energy charging; and the optimal results is better than those obtained using another two experiment-based methods.