Conference Year



Optimization, CO2, Cascade system, Exergy, Thermodyamic Analysis


Synthetic refrigerants are widely used in refrigeration applications. However, it is shown that such refrigerants have negative impacts on the ozone layer of atmosphere. Recently, natural refrigerants such as carbon dioxide and various hydrocarbon compounds are proposed to replace synthetic refrigerants in the industrial refrigeration systems. Carbon dioxide is one of the most promising and environment-friendly refrigerant solution due to its thermo-physical properties, low ozone depletion value and low global warming potential. In this study thermodynamic analysis of a two stage sub-critical cascade refrigeration system using CO2 and R404a refrigerants in low temperature and high temperature cycles is presented. The energy and exergy analysis of the system and its components are performed to determine optimum operating conditions for condensing temperature of the cascade condenser and to maximize the coefficient of performance (COP) and second law efficiency of the system. The required equations are the mass, energy and exergy balances for the cascade refrigeration system. The optimum condensing temperature of the cascade condenser is computed at the first phase of the study. Then correlations are developed to maximize COP of the system according to condensing temperatures of both high and low temperature cycles.