Conference Year



thermal stratification, micro-CHP


In this paper we consider the problem of dynamic performance evaluation for sensible thermal energy storage (TES), with a specific focus on hot water storage tanks. We derive transient performance metrics from second law principles that can be used to guide real-time decision-making aimed toward improving demand response. We show how the transient nature of the metrics can be used not only to influence the values of control variables within the system, but also to mitigate adverse effects of disturbances during operation. To evaluate these metrics in the context of TES in hot water storage tanks, a thermal stratification model is needed. We derive a reduced order model which allows the simulation of tank thermal stratification during all modes of system operation. The proposed performance metrics are analyzed in simulation using the dynamic tank model. The results highlight key trade-offs captured by the metrics that can be incorporated into future optimal control design for sensible TES systems.  Â