Conference Year



Heat pumps, Load Flexibility, Demand response, Energy Storage


This research work presents a methodology to assess the potential of load modulation strategies of HVAC systems for demand response programs at different scales. Two different demand response programs are considered: feed-in tariff signals for renewable production load matching and signals from the distribution grid operator for operational planning and congestion management at the distribution level. The resulting control problems are solved using optimal control formulations. First, the strategies are applied to four typical Belgian houses to match on-site PV production. Different thermal storage options are considered: on the one hand, thermal storage in the building envelope and in water tanks for domestic hot water, and, on the other hand, additional water tanks for space heating needs either in a parallel four-pipe or in a parallel two-pipe configuration. According to the type of house and the modulation strategy considered, a ranking of the most suitable storage option is proposed. Secondly, the method is extended to the scale of a distribution feeder with 50% PV penetration rate. Results show that with 20% heat pump penetration with suitable storage options, residual load reduction reach 28 to 73.4% with ADR#1 and 43.7 to 51.4% with ADR#2. ADR#1 outperforms ADR#2 for short modulation intervals, but can lead to up to 70% additional overconsumption if the chosen thermal storage option is not adapted to the house insulation level.