Extremum Seeking Control, Air-side Economizer
The air-side economizers are a major class of energy-saving devices for ventilation and air conditioning systems by taking advantage of outdoor air during cool or cold weather. Typical rule based control cannot justify energy optimal operation, while model based optimization of air-side economizer operation depends on the accurate knowledge of system model and enthalpy sensing of the ambient and return-air. Such optimal operation is hard to achieve in practice due to inaccurate model and degradation/failure of temperature and relative humidity (RH) sensors. As pointed out by Seem and House (2010), under certain indoor/outdoor air conditions, there exists a convex map between damper position and energy consumption of an air handling unit (AHU), which implies an optimal damper opening minimizing the cooling-coil load. Such convexity guarantees the use of gradient-search type of real-time optimization methods. An Extremum Seeking Control (ESC) was proposed by Li et al. (2009), where the chilled water flow rate of the cooling coil (equivalently the energy consumption) is minimized by tuning the damper opening. The proposed framework was validated with a Modelica based dynamic simulation model of an air-side economizer. This study is conducted to perform experimental evaluation of the ESC control of air-side economizer. The experimental setup is anchored on a Lennox XC25 variable-speed air conditioner. The Lennox, CBX40UHV indoor air handler unit is equipped with duct work to form an air-side economizer, connected to a foam based 16'X8'X8' test chamber. The Lasko 751320 electrical heaters are used as heat source. The Honeywell HCM-890 humidifiers and Soleus Air SG-DEH-70EIP-6 dehumidifiers are used to regulate the indoor air humidity. A National Instruments CompactRIO-9024 platform is used for data acquisition and control. Major measurements include temperature, relative humidity (RH) and power consumption. A Watt Node Pulse WNB-3D-240-P electric power meter is used for power measurement. The Omega P-L-1/10-1/8-6-0-T-3 temperature sensors and Veris Industries HN3XVSX RH sensors are installed to monitor the indoor and outdoor air conditions. The Omega HHT13 speed sensors are used to measure fan speeds, while Fluke 80i-110s current sensors are used to measure the compressor motor current. The ESC controller is implemented with the damper opening as input and the total power consumption as feedback. Two experiments have been performed under different indoor/outdoor air conditions. The first experiment was performed under outdoor air temperature 23°C and RH 65%, a heat load of 6000 W and indoor temperature setpoint 28°C. The ESC turned on the outdoor damper 100% automatically to allow maximal outdoor air resulting in indoor RH 50%. The total power consumption was reduced from 540 W to 450 W with an energy saving of 16.67%. The second experiment was performed under same conditions with indoor RH regulated to 40%.The ESC turned off the outdoor damper to allow minimal outdoor air. The power consumption was reduced from 620 W to 600 W with an energy saving of 3.33%. More experiments will be performed in warmer weather in February and March to further validate the performance of the ESC controller.
Experimental Study on Extremum Seeking Control for Efficient Operation of Air-side Economizer