Visitor Harassment Research Unit White Papers

Date of this Version



visitor harassment, tourist harassment, socioeconomic indicators, vendors, informal traders, visitor interactions


Trader harassment (TH) of visitors is a widespread problem around the world, but little is known about the phenomenon’s predictors. Hence, the goal of the present study was to determine whether national socioeconomic measures could predict TH intensity levels at destinations. To achieve this, data from primary and secondary sources were gathered and analyzed using regression analysis. No predictors were found, but significant correlations were discovered. Of note, significant correlations were found between TH frequency and the national socioeconomic measures of poverty, income disparity, school life expectancy in years, and percentage of population with improved sanitation facilities. However, significant correlations were only found between TH aggressiveness and the national social measures of school life expectancy in years and percentage of population with improved sanitation facilities. Surprisingly, no relationship was found between unemployment levels and both TH frequency and aggressiveness levels. Because many vendors do not reside where they trade, one conclusion from the study was socioeconomic measures from microtraders’ home communities be considered in future research.