The prolific seed production and polyploidy of annual bluegrass allow for the rapid development of herbicide resistance. Ethofumesate-resistant annual bluegrass plants were identified in the 1990s in grass seed production in Oregon, but their prevalence and distribution are not well documented. Therefore a dose–response experiment was initiated to determine the potential level of ethofumesate resistance in seed production systems. Seeds from 55 annual bluegrass populations were obtained from three sources: seed production fields (31 populations), the seed cleaning process (6 populations), and seed testing lots prior to retail distribution (18 populations). Additionally, two populations, one with known ethofumesate resistance and one with known susceptibility, were identified in preliminary testing and used as controls in this experiment. Seed from each collected population was increased. Individual seedlings were then transplanted into separate cone-tainers, grown to a size of 2 to 3 tillers in the greenhouse, and then sprayed using a compressed air track spray chamber with 10 doses of ethofumesate at 0, 0.56, 1.1, 2.8, 5.6, 8.4, 11.2, 16.8, 22.4, and 44.8 kg ai ha−1, with 0.84 to 2.2 kg ha−1 as the label application rate for perennial ryegrass. The resistant to susceptible ratio of populations across all sources ranged from 0.5 to 5.5. The most resistant populations found in production fields, seed cleaning, and seed testing lots had the effective dose necessary to kill 50% of the population (ED50) of 12.1, 9.4, and 13.1 kg ha−1, respectively. Furthermore, 68% of the populations found in production fields had ED50 higher than 6 kg ha−1, indicating common annual bluegrass resistance in grass seed production. As such, growers should implement integrated weed management strategies, as herbicides alone will likely be ineffective at controlling annual bluegrass.


This is the publisher PDF of Vukovic V, Mattox CM, Kowalewski AR, McNally BC, Bigelow CA, Meyers SL, Brosnan JT, Patton AJ (2023) Ethofumesate-resistant annual bluegrass (Poa annua) in grass seed production systems. Weed Technol. 37: 628–636. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of the Weed Science Society of America, it is shared here CC-BY, and the version of record is available at DOI: 10.1017/wet.2023.68.


ethofumesate, annual bluegrass, Poa anna L., perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne L., Herbicide, resistance

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