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Considering the evolution of rotation sensing and timing applications realized in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), flexural mode resonant shapes are outperformed by bulk acoustic wave (BAW) counterparts by achieving higher frequencies with both electrostatic and piezoelectric transduction. Within the 1–30 MHz range, which hosts BAW gyroscopes and timing references, piezoelectric and electrostatic MEMS have similar transduction efficiency. Although, when designed intelligently, electrostatic transduction allows self-alignment between electrodes and the resonator for various BAW modes, misalignment is inevitable regarding piezoelectric transduction of BAW modes that require electrode patterning. In this paper transverse piezoelectric actuation of [011] oriented single crystal lead magnesium niobate–lead titanate (PMN–PT) thin film disks are shown to excite the tangential mode and family of elliptical compound resonant modes, utilizing a self-aligned and unpatterned electrode that spans the entire disk surface. The resonant mode coupling is achieved by employing a unique property of [011] PMN–PT, where the in-plane piezoelectric coefficients have opposite signs. Fabricating 1-port disk transducers, RF reflection measurements are performed that demonstrate the compound mode family shapes in the 1–30 MHz range. Independent verification of mode transduction is achieved using in-plane displacement measurements with Polytec’s laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV). While the tangential mode achieves a 40o/s dithering rate at 335 kHz resonant frequency, the n = 2 wine-glass mode achieves 11.46 nm tip displacement at 8.42 MHz resonant frequency on a radius of 60 μm disk resonator in air. A single electrode resonator that can excite both tangential and wine-glass modes with such metrics lays the foundation for a BAW MEMS gyroscope with a built-in primary calibration stage.


This is the published version of the Erturk, O., Shambaugh, K., Park, HS. et al. Self-aligned single-electrode actuation of tangential and wineglass modes using PMN-PT. Microsyst Nanoeng 9, 52 (2023).