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Boba; alginate beads; pomegranate peel extract; in vitro digestion; release kinetic


“Boba balls” or pearls have recently gained popularity for beverages or food toppings. “Boba balls” could be developed into functional foods by the encapsulation of bioactive compounds. In this study, gelatin/sodium alginate composite “Boba balls” enriched with pomegranate peel extract (PPE) at different concentrations (0, 1, 2, and 3%) were prepared. They were characterized in terms of physical, rheological, textural, morphological, and sensory properties, as well as in vitro digestion, bio-accessibility, and release kinetic of PPE. Adding PPE improved the “Boba” mix’s viscoelasticity and decreased the “Boba balls”’ hardness. The increasing PPE ratio significantly (p < 0.05) increased the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content. The addition of PPE preserved the spherical shape of the “Boba balls”, and as the PPE ratio increased, new junction zones were observed in SEM images. The in vitro digestibility of PPE was significantly (p < 0.05) improved by preserving PPE from the mouth and gastric medium, and “Boba balls” showed the highest release and bio-accessibility in the intestinal medium. Consequently, PPE as a by-product could be successfully used at 2% concentration for enhancing the functionality and bio-accessibility of “Boba balls” without affecting sensory properties.


This is the publisher's version of Dundar, Ayse Neslihan, Kubra Uzuner, Mahmud Ekrem Parlak, Oya Irmak Sahin, Furkan Turker Saricaoglu, and Senay Simsek. 2022. "Enhanced Functionality and Bio-Accessibility of Composite Pomegranate Peel Extract-Enriched “Boba Balls”" Foods 11, no. 23: 3785.