Strict regulation of caste differentiation, at the molecular level, is thought to be important to maintain social structure in insect societies. Previously, a number of extrinsic and intrinsic factors have been shown to influence caste composition in termite colonies. One important factor is the influence of nestmates; in particular, soldier termites are known to inhibit hormone-dependent worker-to-soldier differentiation. However, soldier influences on nestmates at the molecular level are virtually unknown. Here, to test the hypothesis that soldiers can influence nestmate gene expression, we investigated the impact of four treatments on whole-body gene expression in totipotent Reticulitermes flavipes workers: (i) juvenile hormone III (JHIII; a morphogenetic hormone), (ii) soldier head extracts (SHE), (iii) JHIII+SHE, and (iv) live soldiers.
Using quantitative-real-time PCR we determined the expression patterns of 49 previously identified candidate genes in response to the four treatments at assay days 1, 5, and 10. Thirty-eight total genes from three categories (chemical production/degradation, hemolymph protein, and developmental) showed significant differential expression among treatments. Most importantly, SHE and live soldier treatments had a significant impact on a number of genes from families known to play roles in insect development, supporting previous findings and hypotheses that soldiers regulate nestmate caste differentiation via terpene primer pheromones contained in their heads.
This research provides new insights into the impacts that socio-environmental factors (JH, soldiers, primer pheromones) can have on termite gene expression and caste differentiation, and reveals a number of socially-relevant genes for investigation in subsequent caste differentiation research.
Date of this Version
Tarver, Matthew R.; Zhou, Xuguo; and Scharf, Michael E., "Socio-Environmental and Endocrine Influences on Developmental and Caste-Regulatory Gene Expression in the Eusocial Termite Reticulitermes flavipes." (2010). Department of Entomology Faculty Publications. Paper 12.