This paper presents a mathematical model of the kinematic nonlinear drive train errors which reduce absolute static positioning accuracy of robot arms. This kinematic inaccuracy renders robot manipulators ineffective when programmed off-line, though they might be programmed to successfully perform the same task by “Teach Play back” schemes. The kinematic drive train inaccuracy model, presented in this paper can be used to predict and compensate for these second order effects on-line, without resorting to sensor based programming techniques, which are often expensive and difficult to implement in an industrial environment. The drive train error model presented in this paper is based on gear backlash, eccentricity and drive shaft compliance

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