4D dose calculation and delivery with interplay effects between respiratory motion and uniform scanning proton beam
Proton radiotherapy has advantages to deliver accurate high conformal radiation dose to the tumor while sparing the surrounding healthy tissue and critical structures. However, the treatment effectiveness is degraded greatly due to patient free breathing during treatment delivery. Motion compensation for proton radiotherapy is especially challenging as proton beam is more sensitive to the density change along the beam path. Tumor respiratory motion during treatment delivery will affect the proton dose distribution and the selection of optimized parameters for treatment planning, which has not been fully addressed yet in the existing approaches for proton dose calculation. The purpose of this dissertation is to develop an approach for more accurate dose delivery to a moving tumor in proton radiotherapy, i.e., 4D proton dose calculation and delivery, for the uniform scanning proton beam. A three-step approach has been carried out to achieve this goal. First, a solution for the proton output factor calculation which will convert the prescribed dose to machine deliverable monitor unit for proton dose delivery has been proposed and implemented. The novel sector integration method is accurate and time saving, which considers the various beam scanning patterns and treatment field parameters, such as aperture shape, aperture size, measuring position, beam range, and beam modulation. Second, tumor respiratory motion behavior has been statistically characterized and the results have been applied to advanced image guided radiation treatment. Different statistical analysis and correlation discovery approaches have been investigated. The internal / external motion correlation patterns have been simulated, analyzed, and applied in a new hybrid gated treatment to improve the target coverage. Third, a dose calculation method has been developed for 4D proton treatment planning which integrates the interplay effects of tumor respiratory motion patterns and proton beam delivery mechanism. These three steps provide an innovative integrated framework for accurate 4D proton dose calculation and treatment planning for a moving tumor, which extends the functionalities of existing 3D planning systems. In short, this dissertation work addresses a few important problems for effective proton radiotherapy to a moving target. The outcomes of the dissertation are very useful for motion compensation with advanced image guided proton treatment.
Das, Purdue University.
Medical imaging|Nuclear physics
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