The effectiveness of corrective feedback: A meta-analysis

Paul Chamness Miller, Purdue University


The purpose of this meta-analysis is to examine whether oral corrective feedback is effective in the noticing of language learners' errors. Over the last several decades there has been a stronger desire to see a more communicative approach to language learning, yet without giving up the focus on form (Long, 1991). In this communicative approach, however, there is an indication that positive evidence alone is not enough to adequately learn a language. Research suggests that negative evidence, as well as opportunities to repair language as a result of negative evidence, is essential for second language acquisition. One form of negative evidence is oral corrective feedback. The results of this meta-analysis indicate that oral corrective feedback is effective in leading language learners to notice the gap in their interlanguage. There are indications that explicit feedback might be among the most effective forms of feedback, but further research is needed in order to make stronger assertions as to which types are more effective. The results also indicate that feedback might be more effective among certain types of target languages, among certain native languages and among certain age groups, but further research on these specific variables is needed before stronger claims may be made.




Garfinkel, Purdue University.

Subject Area

Language arts

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